1838 Private Frank Sidney Gore
42nd Infantry Battalion, 11th Brigade, 3rd Division
1st Australian Imperial Force 1914-1919

This file last updated 9 November, 2018 13:02

Introduction

Photograph - if available

The following information and chronological table are a summary of the entries from the World War One service record of Frank Sidney Gore.

Some of the service record pages may be duplicated. This generally occurs when the unit and Army records are amalgamated on discharge or death in Service.

Service numbers were allocated by the original unit, and are not unique to the individual. Where an individual is transferred into another unit, duplicating an existing number, the transferee is given an alphabetic suffix, eg 1234A. Officers did not have Army numbers, and if commissioned from the ranks, relinquished their number on commissioning.

Prepared for Dorothy 'Dot' Sadd, granddaughter of Frank Gore by Clive Mitchell-Taylor, 14 Aug 2018.

View Frank Gore's Service record, Certificate of Service , Embarkation Record or WW1 Nominal Roll entry.

Frank Gore died 29 Oct 1971.


Enlistment Details

Service Number

1838

Name

Frank Sidney Gore

Born at

North Sydney, NSW

Age

24 years 2 months as at March 1916

Trade or Calling

Motor Mechanic

Marital Status

Single [Later married in UK]

Next of Kin

Father - Mr Thomas Anthony Gore
High Street, Willoughby
North Sydney, NSW
[Later changed to
Wife - Kathleen Ellen Gore, initial address
23 Pelham Terrace
New Eltham, Kent]

Previous Military Service

No

Attested at

Toowoomba, Qld

Date of Enlistment

9 Mar 1916

Height

5 foot 10 inches [178cm]

Weight

170 pounds [77.25Kg]

Chest

39 inches [99cm]

Complexion

Fresh

Eyes

Bluish

Hair

Dark Brown

Religious Denomination

Church of England

Units

42nd Battalion, 11th Brigade, 3rd Division
[Although appears to have been retained on the staff of the 13th Training Battalion and not to have actually gone to to the 42nd. I have included the history of the 42nd Battalion in this record, and there is little or no information concerning the roles of the Training Battalions.


Chronological Events

Rank

Description

Date

Remarks

Private

Enlisted, allocated to 2nd Reinforcements for 42nd Infantry Battalion.

9 Mar 1916

Private

Undergoing training

21 Mar - 10 May 1916

Private

Embarked from Brisbane on Her Majesty's Army Transport (HMAT) "BOORARA" (A42).

16 Aug 1916

Private

Disembarked Plymouth, UK

14 Oct 1916

Private

Marched in to 3rd Command Depot (Bovington, Dorset).

Private

Marched out of 3 Command Depot and into 11 Training Battalion

14 Nov 1916

No explanation of employment or training in the intervening period.

Private

In hospital, Pneumonia

Jan 1917

Information from letter of enquiry sent to Base Depot Melbourne by Miss Beatrice Newman

Private

Marched out of 11th Training Battalion into 9th Traing Battalion, Fovant

5 Nov 1917

Noindication of employment in the interim

Private

Marched in from Tidworth as batman.

Officers were assigned a soldier assigned to an officer as a personal servant. The batman's role was to attend to the officer, cleaning equipment, clothing, living quarters etc, thereby releasing the officer for their more important role.

Private

Admitted to Tidworth General Hospital, Bronchitis.

17 Jan 1917

Private

Undated letter from Miss Beatrice Newman to Base Records Office, Melbourne

Victoria Street
Off Kelvin Grove Road
Brisbane

To the Authorities of the Military Headquarters[sic]
Dear Sir,
Would you be kind enough to give me any news of Frank Sidney Gore No 1838, 2nd Reinforcements 42nd Battalion.
He left on Exhibition day AUgust 1916 and wrote us eaarly in January saying he was ill in the Hospital with Pneumonia.
It was only a note & showed signs of illness by the writing.
We have not heard since & so far have not received any word from the Authorities.
THe post mark on the envelope was "Broughton Camp".
Thanking you for your trouble
I am
Yours Sincerely
B. Newman

May 1917

Private

Letter from the Officer in Charge, Base Records Office Melbourne to Mr B. Newman [sic]

2nd June, 1917
Dear Sir,
In reply to your letter (undated) I have to state no official report of any description has been given concerning No.1858 Private F.S. Gore, 42nd Bn. It is pointed out however, that cases of minor disability, not likely to develop seriously, are not reported by cable message, the offical intimation of same being contain in hospital lists received by post which take some time in reaching this office. Should his condition have at any time presented serious symptoms, a cabled report would have been despatched to this office for transmition to next-of-kin, shown as father, resident at Willoughby, North Sydney.

2 Jun 1917

Private

Letter from Miss Beatrice Newman to the Officer in Charge:

Diamantina Hospital
Sth Bisbane

To the
Officer in Charge,

Dear Sir,
Your reply to hand Jun 5th re information of Frank Gore Pte No1838 42nd Battalion for which I thank you.

In it you state any news would be sent to his father at Willoughby, North Sydney.

May I ask the reasons, as before Frank Gore left he made statement for any Cables to be sent to me.

Will that not be allowed? Must it be sent to the next-of-kin? or has it been changed since he left.

I should be very grateful if you can answer me those questions & trust I am not putting you to to too much inconvenience in replying again.

Thanking you in anticipation for a reply.

I am
Yours Faithfully
Beatrice Newman

15 Jun 1917

Miss Beatrice reveals herself.

Private

Discharged from hospital to 9th Training Depot

6 Feb 1918

Private

Letter from Offic er in charge, Base Records Office Melbourne to Miss Beatrice Newman:

Dear Madam,

In reply to your letter of the 15th instant, I have to inform you that No.1838 Private F.S. Gorre, 42nd Battalion, recorded his faather as next-of-kin, to whom all cable reports received will be promptly transmitted, the Departmentonly undertaking the obligation of notifying the person nominated as such.

No alteration can be made to the records without the written consent of the soldier.

Yours faithfully

P.S. If you are drawing the above soldier's allotment, it will be necessary for you to advise the District Paymaster, Victoria Barracks, Brisbane, of your change of address.

26 Jun 1917

"Dear John" delivered by proxy, There is no further correspondence.

Private

Amends marital status to "Married" and changes next-of-kin from father to wife - Kathleen Ellen Gore
Kandahar Barracks, PO Tidworth, Salisbury, England.

25 Sep 1917

Private

Amends address of next-of-kin, wife - Kathleen Ellen Gore to
Hamble House, Shipton Bellinger, Tidworth, Hants (Hampshire)

14 Jan 1918

Private

Admitted to Hurdcott Hospital

9 Feb 1918

Private

Discharged from Hurcott Hospital

19 Feb 1918

Private

CRIME - Absent Without Leave from 1200 on 25 Feb 1918 until 1030 on 26 Feb 1918
AWARD - Dismissed by Major J.M. Hawkey on 27 Feb 1918

27 Feb 1918

This is normally the result of extenuating circumstances such as an involuntary absence caused by conditions outside the control of the soldier, such as cancellation of train/bus services or similar.

Private

March out to No 2 Command Depot, Weymouth, from Fovant

4 Apr 1918

Private

March in to 2 Command Depot from 9th Training Battalion

5 Apr 1918

Private

Changed address for NOK (Wife - Kathleen Ellen Gore) to:
3 Hovan Road, New Eltham, Kent, SE9

Private

Changed address for NOK (Wife - Kathleen Ellen Gore) to:
Pelham Terrace, New Eltham, Kent, SE9

18 May 1918

Private

CRIME - Breaking Out of Camp at 0530 on 30 May 1918
AWARD - Admonished by Major C.C. Campbell on 31 May 1918

31 May 1918

Private

Returned to Australia with Pumonary Tuberculosis for Change on HMAT "BARAMBAH" (D11)

6 Jun 1918

"Change" was a provision whereby soldiers with severe injuries or illnesses could be returned to Australia for a year, with a view to them returning having recovered from their debility. In practice it seems that few returned to the war zone.

Private

Disembarked Australia from HMAT "BARAMBAH" (D11)

2 Aug 1918

Privagte

Discharged from the Army in 2nd Military District (Sydney)

5 Oct 1918

Discharge record shows no entitlement to 1914-15 Star and no entitlement to the Victory Medal as while he served overseas in the UK, he did not serve in a war zone.


Medals and Dress Embellishments

British War Medal 1914-1920, not entitled to 1914-15 Star and not entitled to Victory Medal as he did not serve in a war zone.

Not entitled to wear the ANZAC 'A'.

No Wound Stripes.

Two Long Service Stripes and three Overseas Service Chevrons.

Use the hyperlinks or scroll down to see further information on the badges.


Background - Infantry Battalions

[Based on information in Redcoats to Cams, Ian Kuring.]

In December 1914, battalions of about 1000 men were organised into eight companies each divided into half of 60 men and then into two sections of around 30 men. Command was highly centralised with companies commanded by a Captain, half-companies by Lieutentants and sections by a Sergeant.

In early 1915 Australia reduced the number of Companies to four, but doubled their size to more than 220 men. Each rifle company had a headquarters and four platoons. Each platoon had a headquarters and four rifle sections of 10 men commanded by corporals.

From early 1916 light machineguns replaced medium machine guns and were eventually issued to each rifle platoon.

During 1917 rifle platoons were reorganised to have a light machine gun section, a rifle grenade section, a hand grenade/bombing section and a rifle assault section.

By mid 1918, the number of officers had increased to 38 but the number of other ranks had declined to 900. At the same time, the firepower of the battalion was greatly augmented with hand and rifle grenades and Lewis Guns, of which there was 34 per battalion.

Rifle, Short Magazine Lee-Enfield .303in, Mark III
Rifle, Small Magazine Lee-Enfield .303in, Mark III with sword bayonet

42nd Battalion, 11th Brigade, 3rd Divison

[Information from https://rslvirtualwarmemorial.org.au]
Unit Shoulder Patch 42nd Infantry Battalion

Not entitled to wear ANZAC 'A'

The 42nd Battalion was raised at Enoggera, on the outskirts of Brisbane, in December 1915 and became part of the 11th Brigade of the 3rd Australian Division. Due to sharing its numeric title with the famous Scottish regiment the Black Watch, the battalion became known as the "Australian Black Watch". This association was recognised with a bagpipe band.

After training in Australia and Britain, the 42nd deployed to France on 26 November 1916 and entered the frontline for the first time on 23 December. The winter of 1916-17 was horrendous, and the 42nd spent much of it in the front line, the remainder being spent alternating between training and labouring in the rear areas.

In 1917, the operations of the 3rd Division were focussed on the Ypres sector of Belgium. The 42nd participated in major battles at Messines on 7 June, Warneton on 31 July, Broodseinde on 4 October, and Passchendaele on 12 October. Even though the battalion was in a reserve role, the battle of Passchendaele proved particularly costly. It lost over a third of its strength, principally from German gas attacks, and trench foot caused by the sodden condition of the battlefield.

Belgium remained the scene of the 42nd Battalion's activities for the next five months as it was rotated between service in the rear areas and the front line. When the German Army launched its last great offensive in March 1918, the battalion was rushed south to France and played a role in blunting the drive towards the vital railway junction of Amiens.

On 4 July 1918, the 42nd took part in the battle of Hamel and captured all of its objectives with only three fatal casualties - demonstrating what a well-planned and supported attack could achieve. The Allies launched their own offensive on 8 August 1918, and the 42nd played an active role both in the initial attack and the long advance that followed.

This advance, though, sapped the strength of the AIF. On 20 September 1918 the 42nd was ordered to disband to provide reinforcements for other battalions. Its men mutinied winning the Battalion a temporary reprieve. It fought its last battle 'St Quentin Canal' between 29 September and 2 October. On 2 October the order to disband was once again issued. The men still disobeyed, but pressure from the AIF hierarchy eventually forced compliance. The 42nd Battalion was disbanded on 22 October 1918.


Battle Honours:

Messines 1917, Ypres 1917, Polygon Wood, Broodeseinde, Poelcappelle, Passchendaele, Somme 1918, Ancre 1918, Hamel, amiens, Albert 1918, St Quentin Canal, France and Flanders 1916-18


1914-15 Star

[Extract from Ribbons and Medals: Naval, Military, Air Force and Civil, Captain H. Taprell Dorling, DSO RN,
George Philip & Son, 33 Fleet Street, London EC4, 1940]
1914-15 Star

The decoration consists of a four-pointed star in bright bronze as shown, with the date 1914-15 on the central scroll. The reverse is plain, and is stamped with the name and unit of the recipient. The ribbon is red, white and blue, shaded and watered, worn with the red nearest the centre of the breast. It is atached to the medal through a ring.

It is similar in shape and description to the 1914 Star, to which few, if any, Australians were entitled.

The decoration, sanctioned in 1918, was issued "to all officers, warrant officers, non-commissioned officers and men of the British, Dominion, Colonial and Indian Forces, including civilian medical practitioners, nursing sisters, nurses and others eployed with military hospitals, who actually served on the establishment of a unit in a theatre of war as defined in Appendix 'A'. Individuals in possession of the 1914 Star will not be eligible for the award of this decoration."

Appendix 'A' included the Western, Eastern, Egyptian, African, Asiatic and Australasian Theatres of war, with commencement dates individual to countries and campaigns.


British War Medal 1940-20

[Extract from Ribbons and Medals: Naval, Military, Air Force and Civil, Captain H. Taprell Dorling, DSO RN,
George Philip & Son, 33 Fleet Street, London EC4, 1940]
British War Medal

This medal was approved by King George V in 19 19 to record the bringing of the war to a successful conclusion and the arduous services rendered by His Majesty's Forces.

The medal, which is supended from its ribbon by means of a straight clasp, without swivel, bears on the obverse the effigy of His Majesty - exactly similar to that on a half-crown - with the legend 'Georgivus V : Omn : Rex et Ind : Imp'.

The reverse bears a design which represents St George on horseback, trampling underfoot the eagle shield of the central powers and a skull and crossbones, the emblems of death. Overhead is the risen sun of victory. The male figure, rather than a symbolical female one, was chosen because man had borne the brunt of the fighting. The figure was mounted on horseback as symbolical of man's mind controlling force (represented by the horse) of far greater strength than his own. The design is thus also symbolical of the mechanical and scientific appliances which helped so largely to win the war.

The ribbon has a orange watered centre with stripes of white and black at each side and with borders of royal blue. It is stated that the colours have no particular signification.


Victory Medal

[Extract from Ribbons and Medals: Naval, Military, Air Force and Civil, Captain H. Taprell Dorling, DSO RN,
George Philip & Son, 33 Fleet Street, London EC4, 1940]

This medal, of bronze, bears on the obverse a winged figure of Victory, full length in the middle of the medal and full face; the borders and the backgound plain, without either incription or date. On the reverse is an inscription. "The Great War for Civilization." and either the names of the different Allied and Associated Powers, or their coats of arms.

The rim is plain, and the medal hangs from a ring. The ribbon is red in the centre, with green and violet on either side shaded to form the colours of two rainbows.

It has also been approved that any officer or man who has been "mentioned in despatches" shall wear a small bronze oak leaf on the ribbon of this medal. Only one oak leaf is so worn, no matter how many "mentions" the wearer may have received.

The medal is designed to obviate the exchange of Allied Commemorative war medals, and is issued only to those who actually served on the establishment of a unit or ship in a theatre of war. [This is an important distinction, as those Australians who served only in Australia, or only in Australia and England, were not entitled to the award.]


The Rising Sun Badge

This version of the Rising Sun Badge was worn by soldiers of the 1st and 2nd Australian Imperial Forces, and the badge has become an integral part of the Digger tradition.

Worn on the the upturned brim of the slouch hat, it is readily identified with thespirit of ANZAC.

There are a number of versions of the genesis of the badge, the most widely acceptedbeing that it derived from a Trophy of Arms - various swords and bayonets mounted ona semi-circular display in Victoria Barracks, Melbourne.

The original version worn in South Africa was modified in 1904 and worn by Australian soldiers through two World Wars.

Later changes were made to the style of the crown and the wording on the scroll. The "King's Crown" is the one shown to the left, while arches of the "Queen's Crown" rise at the same angle as the base of the crown, curve at their highest point to a level mid-way on the orb below the cross and then down to below the orb.

In 1949 the scroll was changed to read "Australian Military Forces".

In 1969 the badge was modified to incorporate the 7-pointed Federation Star with a central Queen's crown over the Torse wreath (a twisted roll of fabric) from the original 1902 version, and the scroll wording changed to "Australia".

In the 75th anniversary year of the the ANZAC landings at Gallipoli, there was a drive to return to traditional accoutrements worn by Australian soldiers during the World Wars, which clearly identify the Australian Army. The Queen's crown returned to its central position and the scroll now reads "The Australian Army'.


The ANZAC 'A'

ANZAC 'A'

The brass letter 'A' to represent service related to Gallipoli (ANZAC) was authorised to be worn 'over unit colour patches on both sleeves of the service dress jacket and greatcoat" by Military Order 354 of 18 Aug 17 and AIF Order 937 of 6 Nov 17, as amended in terms of qualification by Military Order 20 of 19 Jan 18 and by AIF Order 1084 of 25 Jan 18.

The size of the letter 'A', introduced as one inch in height (AIF Order 994 of 30 Nov 17), was reduced to three-quarters of an inch by AIF Order 1012 of 11 Dec 17.

Provision for wearing the brass letter 'A' was also included in General Routine Order 0.815 of 17 Dec 43 and GRO 310 of 7 Dec 45.


Wound Stripe

Army Order No.204 Headquarters, 1st A.N.Z.A.C., 9th August, 1916. (slightly amended for layout)
DISTINCTIONS FOR OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS WHO HAVE BEEN WOUNDED

Wound Stripes

The following distinction in dress will be worn on the service dress jacket by all officers and soldiers who have been wounded in any of the campaigns since 4th August 1914 :

  • Stripes of gold Russia braid No.1, two inches [2.5cm] in length sewn perpendicularly on the left forearm sleeve of the jacket to mark each occasion on which wounded.

  • In the case of officers, the lower end of the first strip of gold braid will be immediately above the upper point of the flap on the cuff.

  • Warrant officers, non-commissioned officers and men will wear the gold braid on the left forearm sleeve, the lower edge of the braid to be three inches from the bottom of the sleeve.

  • Subsequent occasions on which wounded, will be placed on either side of the original one at half inch interval.

  • Gold braid and sews will be obtained free on indent from the Army Ordnance Department; the sewing on will be carried out regimentally without expense to the public.


Long Service Badges

[Image from http://www.diggerhistory.info]
Long Service Badges
A.I.F. ORDER No.470, 24 January 1917 (slightly amended for layout)

The question of the issue of a badge to members of the AIF who have completed a certain period of service has received consideration, and approval has been given for the issue of a badge for long service combined with good conduct, subject to the following conditions.

  • The badge will consist of an inverted single chevron of service braid to be worn on the left forearm - the point of the chevron to be 3 inches [7.6cm] above the edge of the cuff.

  • Warrant and non-commissioned officers and men, will be eligible for the badge, which will not carry an increased pay or allowance.

  • One chevron will be worn for each complete year's service in the Australian Imperial Force from the date of embarkation in Australia.

  • No badge will be issued to any man who, during the 12 months, has incurred a regimental entry (i.e. an entry involving forfeiture of pay) in his sheet.

  • Time absent from the unit in hospital or elsewhere on account of wounds or sickness, not the result of misconduct, will count as service towards earning the badge.

  • A man in possession of a badge will forfeit same on being convicted of any offence involving a forfeiture of pay , but will be eligible to regain the badge after 6 months good conduct, from the date of forfeiture.

  • The illegal wearing of this badge will be a crime under A.A. Section 40.


Overseas Service Chevrons

[http://au.geocities.com/fortysecondbattalion/level2/reference/01nos-standards.htm]
[Image from http://www.diggerhistory.info]

Overseas Service Chevrons

Australian Imperial Force Order No.1053, January 1918 (Slightly amended for layout)

His Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of chevrons to denote service overseas since the 4th August 1914.

  • Chevrons of two colours have been approved.

    • The first chevron if earned on or before 31st December 1914, will be red.

    • If earned on or after 1st January 1915, it will be blue.

    • All additional chevrons after the first will be blue.

  • The chevrons will be worsted embroidery, 1/4 inch [0.63cm] in width, the arms 4 inches [10.2cm] long. They will be worn inverted on the right forearm:

  • In the case of officers, the apex of the lowest chevron will be 1 inch [2.5cm] above the upper point of the flap on the cuff.

  • In the case of warrant-officers, non-commissioned officers and men, the apex of the lowest chevron will be midway between the seams and four inches [10.2cm] above the bottom edge of the sleeve.

  • The red chevron will be worn below the blue one. They will not be worn on greatcoats.

  • In the case of Australians, the first chevron was earned the date the individual left Australia. Additional chevrons were awarded for each successive aggregate period of 12 months service outside Australia.


Some Government Issued Badges

Nearest Female
Relative Badge

War Widows
Guild Brooch

Silver War Badge
 

Discharged Returned
Soldier Badge

Government issued badge in enamel
and sterling silver issued to the wife,
mother or nearest female relative of
a serving soldier. Additional bars
were suspended below for further
individuals.

Membership badge of a Kookaburra
in sterling silver, issued by the
Government to the widows of men
who lost their lives due to their
service. Numbered on the reverse.

Awarded to service personnel who
sustained a wound, or contracted
sickness of disability in the course
of the war as a result of which
they were invalided out, or to
soldiers who had retired during
the course of the war.

First issued in 1916. Slight variations are indicative of a number of makers. 267,300 were issued. Numbered on the reverse but the numbers have no link with length of service or Service Number.

[Badge information collated from Australian War Memorial, "Australians Awarded" by Clive Johnson and en.wikipedia.com]