395 Private Norman Scott [WIA]
38th Infantry Battalion, 10th Infantry Brigade, 3rd Division
1st Australian Imperial Force 1914-1919

This file last updated 7 July, 2019 16:31

Introduction

Image if available

The following information and chronological table are a summary of the entries from the service record of William John Norman Scott who was known as, and enlisted as 395 Private Norman Scott.

There is possibly some contention as to whether he was wounded. The record where his 'Distinguishing Marks' are noted contains an annotation 'wound' in a different pen and different hand-writing to the original entries. As he later applied for Repatriation Benefits, it is likely that he was wounded and no entry made.

Abbreviations or acronyms which have a dotted underline can be expanded by moving the cursor over the term - e.g. "WIA".
This is gradually being incorporated into the site, replacing the the current expansion of abbreviations. There may be a discernable delay of about a second before the expansion is first provided. There is also a separate list of abbreviations which is available through the menu at the top of this page or the hyperlink here.

Some of the service record pages may be duplicated. This generally occurs when the unit and Army records are amalgamated on discharge or death in Service.

Service numbers in WW1 were unique to the unit (e.g. Battalion) or Corps (e.g. Artillery). In WW2 Service Numbers were unique to the State in which they were allotted. For further information about identity numbers for Service personnel, see Regimental and Service Numbers

Before the First World War Australia was the only English-speaking country which had a system of compulsory military training during a time of peace. The legislation for compulsory military training was introduced in 1909 by Prime Minister Alfred Deakin, and was passed into law in 1911, under the Labor government that succeeded Deakin's.

The legislation provided for three levels of training: boys 1214 years old had to enrol in the junior cadets, 1418 year olds enrolled in the senior cadets, and 1826 year olds had to register with the home defence militia, the Commonwealth Military Forces. Exemptions were given to those who lived more than five miles [eight kilometres] from the nearest training site, those passed medically unfit, to resident aliens and theological students. Those who failed to register for military training were punished with fines or jail sentences. Many boys did not register for their military training, and between 1911 and 1915 there were 34,000 prosecutions, with 7,000 jail sentences imposed.

During the First World War, two referenda had been held over conscription for overseas service, causing enormous bitterness in the community in general and within the Labor Party in particular. This was partly why Labor swung around to oppose compulsory military training and abolished it when it was elected to government in October 1929.

Sources
National Archives of Australia, Fact sheet: Universal military training in Australia, 191129
Peter Dennis et al., The Oxford companion to Australian military history, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1995

Extract from https://www.awm.gov.au/articles/encyclopedia/conscription/universal_service, 30 Nov 2018

Prepared for Vietnam veteran Bradley Read by Clive Mitchell-Taylor - 15 Jun 2019.

View Norman Scott's Service Record, or his entry on the Embarkation Roll All files are in PDF format. See his record in the AIF Project, University of New South Wales.


This photograph shows the Band of the 38th Battalion. Norman Scott has been identified in the photo, but I have been unable to download the key which shows where he is. The Band was not a formal entity within the infantry battalions, but presumably got together during periods when the unit was behind the front lines.

Enlistment Details

Service Number

395

What is your Name?

William John Norman Scott, enlisted as Norman Scott

Born at

Parish of Stanley, Town of Beechworth, County of Victoria

Are you a natural born British Subject or a Naturalised British Subject? (NB, — If the latter, papers to be shown.)

Natural Born British Subject

What is your Age?

21 years and 2 months [as at 29 Mar 1916 - birth dates not actually recorded at this time]

What is your Trade or Calling?

Mechanic

Are you, or have you ever been an Apprentice? If so, where, to whom, and for what period?

Mechanic, 7 years

Are you married?

Single

Who is your next of kin? (Address to be stated)

[Father] William Scott, Barker St, Castlemaine, Victoria

Have you ever been convicted by the Civil Power?

No

Have you ever been discharge from any part of His Majesty's Forces, with Ignominy, or as Incorrigible and Worthless, or on account of Conviction of Felony, or of a Sentence of Penal Servitude, or have you been dismissed with Disgrace from the Navy?

No

Do you now belong to, or have you ever served in his Majesty's Army, the Marines, the Militia, the Militia Reserve, the Territorial Force, Royal Navy or Colonial Forces? If so, state which and if not now serving, state cause of discharge.

No [Erased] U.T. inserted.
[This abbreviation probably means 'Universal Training' which is the Universal Service obligation noted in the introduction above.]

Have you stated the whole, if any, of your previous service?

Yes

Have you ever been rejeced as unfit for His Majesty's Service? If so, on what grounds?

No

(For married men, widowers with children and soldiers who are the sole support of widowed mother)—
Do you understand that no separation allowance will be issued in respect of your service beyond an amount which together with pay would reach 8 shillings per day?

[Left blank]

Are you prepared to undergo innoculation against small pox and enteric fever

Yes

Date of Enlistment

29 Mar 1916, at Bendigo, Victoria

Height

5 foot 6 inches [167.6 cm]

Weight

8 stone 10 pounds [122 pounds or 55.45 Kg]

Chest

33-37 inches [84-89 cm]

Complexion

Fair

Eyes

Blue [Right 6/6, Left 6/6

Hair

Light Brown

Religious Denomination

Presbyterian

Distinctive Marks

Vaccination 4L, Old appendix scar, wound
[The latter written in a different hand and different writing implement, probably at the time of wounding, however there is no documentation to support the contention, other than that fact than the soldier later applied for Repatriation Benefits]

Unit

A Company, 38th Infantry Battalion


Chronological Events

Rank

Description

Date

Remarks

Private

Enlisted, allocated to A Company

29 Mar 1916

Training for the Battalion was at initially at Bendigo, but after an outbreak of cerebro-spinal menigitis which caused a number of deaths, the unit was moved to Campbellfield in Victoria.

Private

Embarked for England aboard HMAT Runic (A54)

20 Jun 1916

 

Private

Disembarked Plymouth, UK

10 Aug 1916

Private

Proceeded overseas to France, ex Southampton

22 Nov 1916

Private

Proceeded on leave to England

10 Jan 1918

Private

Rejoined Unit

26 Jan 1918

Private

To hospital, sick.
Admitted to 6 AFA
Admitted to 20 CCS

26 Apr 1918

Private

Admitted to L of C Hospital, P.U.O. [Also known as Trench Fever)
Annotated in another document as 1st Gen Hosp Éntretat

29 Apr 1918

Private

Admitted to 1st Aust Con Dep

17 May 1918

Private

Discharged to B/Dep [also abbreviated to AIBD], Rouelles

1 Jun 1918

Private

Marched out to join unit

8 Jun 1918

Private

Rejoined unit ex Hospital

9 Jun 1918

Private

Proceeded on leave to UK

16 Jan 1919

On leave 18 Jan 1919 to 1 Feb 1919

Private

Granted extension of leave to 8 Feb 1919

8 Feb 1919

Admin Headquarters, London

Private

Rejoined unit ex leave

11 Feb 1919

England

Private

Proceded to Base

17 Feb 1919

Private

Proceeded to Eng

28 Feb 1919

England

Private

Marched in [to England]

1 Mar 1919

Private

Embarked for return to Australia per HTKaragola

1 May 119

Private

Disembarked 3 MD

2 Jun 1919

Private

Discharged

17 July 1919

Entry notes T.P.E.


Medals and Dress Embellishments

British War Medal 1914-1920, Victory Medal, not entitled to the 1914-15 Star.

NoWound Stripes.

Not entitled to wear the ANZAC 'A'.

Four Long Service Stripe and Three Overseas Service Chevrons.

Use the hyperlinks or scroll down to see further information on the badges.


Background - Infantry Battalions

[Based on information in Redcoats to Cams, Ian Kuring.]

In December 1914, battalions of about 1000 men were organised into eight companies each divided into half of 60 men and then into two sections of around 30 men. Command was highly centralised with companies commanded by a Captain, half-companies by Lieutentants and sections by a Sergeant.

In early 1915 Australia reduced the number of Companies to four, but doubled their size to more than 220 men. Each rifle company had a headquarters and four platoons. Each platoon had a headquarters and four rifle sections of 10 men commanded by corporals.

From early 1916 light machineguns replaced medium machine guns and were eventually issued to each rifle platoon.

During 1917 rifle platoons were reorganised to have a light machine gun section, a rifle grenade section, a hand grenade/bombing section and a rifle assault section.

By mid 1918, the number of officers had increased to 38 but the number of other ranks had declined to 900. At the same time, the firepower of the battalion was greatly augmented with hand and rifle grenades and Lewis Guns, of which there was 34 per battalion.

Rifle, Short Magazine Lee-Enfield .303in, Mark III
Rifle, Small Magazine Lee-Enfield .303in, Mark III with sword bayonet

38th Battalion, 10th Infantry Brigade, 3rd Division

[Information from https://rslvirtualwarmemorial.org.au]
Unit Shoulder Patch 38th Infantry Battalion

38<sup>th</sup> Battalion SHoulder Patch
(Not entitled to wear ANZAC A)

The 38th Battalion was formed on 1 March 1916 at a camp established on the Epsom Racecourse at Bendigo in Victoria. Early training was disrupted by a severe outbreak of cerebro-spinal meningitis in the camp, as a result of which the healthy members were transferred to a camp at Campbellfield, where the Battalion had to be rebuilt from fresh reinforcements.

After training in both Australia and Britain, the 38th Battalion crossed to France in late November 1916 and moved into the trenches of the Western Front for the first time on 1 December. During the harsh winter of 1916-17 the 3rd Division was heavily involved in raiding the German trenches. In February 1917 the 38th Battalion provided 400 troops, with a similar party from the 37th Battalion, to form a special raiding "battalion". After several weeks of training this force staged a single 35-minute raid on the night of 27 February and was then disbanded.

The 38th fought in its first major battle at Messines, in Belgium, between 7-9 June 1917. It fought in another two major attacks in this sector - the battle of Broodseinde on 4 October, and the battle of Passchendaele on 12 October. Broodseinde was a success, reflecting careful planning and preparation, but the 38th still suffered 29 per cent casualties. Passchendaele, however, was a disaster, executed in haste amidst horrendous conditions brought on by torrential rain. It was the 38th's most costly operation of the war, resulting in 62 per cent casualties.

Belgium remained the focus of the 38th Battalion's activities for the next five months, until it was rushed south to France in late March 1918 to meet the German Army's Spring Offensive. The Allies launched their own offensive on 8 August 1918, but the 38th was in reserve on this day and did not play an active role. It was involved, however, in an ill-conceived attack that failed to capture the village of Proyart on 10 August. Undaunted, the battalion continued to play an active role throughout August and early September in the 3rd Division's advance along the Somme Valley.

The 38th participated in its last major action of the war between 29 September and 2 October 1918 as part of the Australian-American operation that breached the formidable defences of the Hindenburg Line along the St Quentin Canal. It was disbanded in April 1919.


Battle Honours

Messines 1917, Ypres 1917, Polygon Wood, Broodseinde, Poelcappelle, Passchendaele, Somme 1918, Ancre 1918, Amiens, Albert 1918, Mont St Quentin, Hindenburg Line, St Quentin Canal, France and Flanders 1916-18.


1914-15 Star

[Extract from Ribbons and Medals: Naval, Military, Air Force and Civil, Captain H. Taprell Dorling, DSO RN,
George Philip & Son, 33 Fleet Street, London EC4, 1940]
1914-15 Star

The decoration consists of a four-pointed star in bright bronze as shown, with the date 1914-15 on the central scroll. The reverse is plain, and is stamped with the name and unit of the recipient. The ribbon is red, white and blue, shaded and watered, worn with the red nearest the centre of the breast. It is atached to the medal through a ring.

It is similar in shape and description to the 1914 Star, to which few, if any, Australians were entitled. Those entitled were those who had already served with the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force (AN&MEF) in the operations to capture German New Guinea in 1914.

The decoration, sanctioned in 1918, was issued "to all officers, warrant officers, non-commissioned officers and men of the British, Dominion, Colonial and Indian Forces, including civilian medical practitioners, nursing sisters, nurses and others eployed with military hospitals, who actually served on the establishment of a unit in a theatre of war as defined in Appendix 'A'. Individuals in possession of the 1914 Star will not be eligible for the award of this decoration."

Appendix 'A' included the Western, Eastern, Egyptian, African, Asiatic and Australasian Theatres of war, with commencement dates individual to countries and campaigns.


British War Medal 1940-20

[Extract from Ribbons and Medals: Naval, Military, Air Force and Civil, Captain H. Taprell Dorling, DSO RN,
George Philip & Son, 33 Fleet Street, London EC4, 1940]
British War Medal

This medal was approved by King George V in 19 19 to record the bringing of the war to a successful conclusion and the arduous services rendered by His Majesty's Forces.

The medal, which is supended from its ribbon by means of a straight clasp, without swivel, bears on the obverse the effigy of His Majesty - exactly similar to that on a half-crown - with the legend 'Georgivus V : Omn : Rex et Ind : Imp'.

The reverse bears a design which represents St George on horseback, trampling underfoot the eagle shield of the central powers and a skull and crossbones, the emblems of death. Overhead is the risen sun of victory. The male figure, rather than a symbolical female one, was chosen because man had borne the brunt of the fighting. The figure was mounted on horseback as symbolical of man's mind controlling force (represented by the horse) of far greater strength than his own. The design is thus also symbolical of the mechanical and scientific appliances which helped so largely to win the war.

The ribbon has a orange watered centre with stripes of white and black at each side and with borders of royal blue. It is stated that the colours have no particular signification.


Victory Medal

[Extract from Ribbons and Medals: Naval, Military, Air Force and Civil, Captain H. Taprell Dorling, DSO RN,
George Philip & Son, 33 Fleet Street, London EC4, 1940]

This medal, of bronze, bears on the obverse a winged figure of Victory, full length in the middle of the medal and full face; the borders and the backgound plain, without either incription or date. On the reverse is an inscription. "The Great War for Civilization." and either the names of the different Allied and Associated Powers, or their coats of arms.

The rim is plain, and the medal hangs from a ring. The ribbon is red in the centre, with green and violet on either side shaded to form the colours of two rainbows.

It has also been approved that any officer or man who has been "mentioned in despatches" shall wear a small bronze oak leaf on the ribbon of this medal. Only one oak leaf is so worn, no matter how many "mentions" the wearer may have received.

The medal is designed to obviate the exchange of Allied Commemorative war medals, and is issued only to those who actually served on the establishment of a unit or ship in a theatre of war. [This is an important distinction, as those Australians who served only in Australia, or only in Australia and England, were not entitled to the award.]


The Rising Sun Badge

This version of the Rising Sun Badge was worn by soldiers of the 1st and 2nd Australian Imperial Forces, and the badge has become an integral part of the Digger tradition.

Worn on the the upturned brim of the slouch hat, it is readily identified with thespirit of ANZAC.

There are a number of versions of the genesis of the badge, the most widely acceptedbeing that it derived from a Trophy of Arms - various swords and bayonets mounted ona semi-circular display in Victoria Barracks, Melbourne.

The original version worn in South Africa was modified in 1904 and worn by Australian soldiers through two World Wars.

Later changes were made to the style of the crown and the wording on the scroll. The "King's Crown" is the one shown to the left, while arches of the "Queen's Crown" rise at the same angle as the base of the crown, curve at their highest point to a level mid-way on the orb below the cross and then down to below the orb.

In 1949 the scroll was changed to read "Australian Military Forces".

In 1969 the badge was modified to incorporate the 7-pointed Federation Star with a central Queen's crown over the Torse wreath (a twisted roll of fabric) from the original 1902 version, and the scroll wording changed to "Australia".

In the 75th anniversary year of the the ANZAC landings at Gallipoli, there was a drive to return to traditional accoutrements worn by Australian soldiers during the World Wars, which clearly identify the Australian Army. The Queen's crown returned to its central position and the scroll now reads "The Australian Army'.

The ANZAC 'A'

ANZAC 'A'

The brass letter 'A' to represent service related to Gallipoli (ANZAC) was authorised to be worn 'over unit colour patches on both sleeves of the service dress jacket and greatcoat" by Military Order 354 of 18 Aug 17 and AIF Order 937 of 6 Nov 17, as amended in terms of qualification by Military Order 20 of 19 Jan 18 and by AIF Order 1084 of 25 Jan 18.

The size of the letter 'A', introduced as one inch in height (AIF Order 994 of 30 Nov 17), was reduced to three-quarters of an inch by AIF Order 1012 of 11 Dec 17.

Provision for wearing the brass letter 'A' was also included in General Routine Order 0.815 of 17 Dec 43 and GRO 310 of 7 Dec 45.


Wound Stripe

Army Order No.204 Headquarters, 1st A.N.Z.A.C., 9th August, 1916. (slightly amended for layout)
DISTINCTIONS FOR OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS WHO HAVE BEEN WOUNDED

Wound Stripes

The following distinction in dress will be worn on the service dress jacket by all officers and soldiers who have been wounded in any of the campaigns since 4th August 1914 :

  • Stripes of gold Russia braid No.1, two inches [2.5cm] in length sewn perpendicularly on the left forearm sleeve of the jacket to mark each occasion on which wounded.

  • In the case of officers, the lower end of the first strip of gold braid will be immediately above the upper point of the flap on the cuff.

  • Warrant officers, non-commissioned officers and men will wear the gold braid on the left forearm sleeve, the lower edge of the braid to be three inches from the bottom of the sleeve.

  • Subsequent occasions on which wounded, will be placed on either side of the original one at half inch interval.

  • Gold braid and sews will be obtained free on indent from the Army Ordnance Department; the sewing on will be carried out regimentally without expense to the public.

Long Service Badges

[Image from http://www.diggerhistory.info]
Long Service Badges
A.I.F. ORDER No.470, 24 January 1917 (slightly amended for layout)

The question of the issue of a badge to members of the AIF who have completed a certain period of service has received consideration, and approval has been given for the issue of a badge for long service combined with good conduct, subject to the following conditions.

  • The badge will consist of an inverted single chevron of service braid to be worn on the left forearm - the point of the chevron to be 3 inches [7.6cm] above the edge of the cuff.

  • Warrant and non-commissioned officers and men, will be eligible for the badge, which will not carry an increased pay or allowance.

  • One chevron will be worn for each complete year's service in the Australian Imperial Force from the date of embarkation in Australia.

  • No badge will be issued to any man who, during the 12 months, has incurred a regimental entry (i.e. an entry involving forfeiture of pay) in his sheet.

  • Time absent from the unit in hospital or elsewhere on account of wounds or sickness, not the result of misconduct, will count as service towards earning the badge.

  • A man in possession of a badge will forfeit same on being convicted of any offence involving a forfeiture of pay , but will be eligible to regain the badge after 6 months good conduct, from the date of forfeiture.

  • The illegal wearing of this badge will be a crime under A.A. Section 40.


Overseas Service Chevrons

[http://au.geocities.com/fortysecondbattalion/level2/reference/01nos-standards.htm]
[Image from http://www.diggerhistory.info]

Overseas Service Chevrons

Australian Imperial Force Order No.1053, January 1918 (Slightly amended for layout)

His Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of chevrons to denote service overseas since the 4th August 1914.

  • Chevrons of two colours have been approved.

    • The first chevron if earned on or before 31st December 1914, will be red.

    • If earned on or after 1st January 1915, it will be blue.

    • All additional chevrons after the first will be blue.

  • The chevrons will be worsted embroidery, 1/4 inch [0.63cm] in width, the arms 4 inches [10.2cm] long. They will be worn inverted on the right forearm:

  • In the case of officers, the apex of the lowest chevron will be 1 inch [2.5cm] above the upper point of the flap on the cuff.

  • In the case of warrant-officers, non-commissioned officers and men, the apex of the lowest chevron will be midway between the seams and four inches [10.2cm] above the bottom edge of the sleeve.

  • The red chevron will be worn below the blue one. They will not be worn on greatcoats.

  • In the case of Australians, the first chevron was earned the date the individual left Australia. Additional chevrons were awarded for each successive aggregate period of 12 months service outside Australia.

Some Government Issued Badges

Nearest Female
Relative Badge

War Widows
Guild Brooch

Silver War Badge
 

Discharged Returned
Soldier Badge

Government issued badge in enamel
and sterling silver issued to the wife,
mother or nearest female relative of
a serving soldier. Additional bars
were suspended below for further
individuals.

Membership badge of a Kookaburra
in sterling silver, issued by the
Government to the widows of men
who lost their lives due to their
service. Numbered on the reverse.

Awarded to service personnel who
sustained a wound, or contracted
sickness of disability in the course
of the war as a result of which
they were invalided out, or to
soldiers who had retired during
the course of the war.

First issued in 1916. Slight variations are indicative of a number of makers. 267,300 were issued. Numbered on the reverse but the numbers have no link with length of service or Service Number.

[Badge information collated from Australian War Memorial, "Australians Awarded" by Clive Johnson and en.wikipedia.com]