2371 Private James Ernest Lapworth [WIA**]
12th Infantry Battalion,
3rd Brigade,
1st Division
1st Australian Imperial Force

This file last updated 21 October, 2023 10:06


23371 Private James Ernest Lapworth

Born in 1897 to Arthur Lapworth and Nora (née Kelly), James Ernest Lapworth enlisted in 1915 and was initially posted as a member of the 5th Reinforcements to the 26th Battalion. He embarked for the Middle East from Brisbane on HMAT "WARILDA (A69) on 5 Oct 1915. On arrival in Egypt he underwent training with the 7th Training Battalion and was allotted to the 12th Battalion.

He embarked from Alexandria to join the BEF on 29 Mar 1916,disembarking at Marseilles on 5 Apr 1916. He was wounded in action (WIA) for the first time on 24 Jul 1916 with a gunshot wound to the neck. He was wounded again on 31 Oct 1917.

Quite apart from his wounds, James Lapworth spent considerable periods in hospital, suffering from sea sickness on his voyage from Australia, then rheumatism, debility, trench fever and acne. Although his gallantry cannot be questioned, he did not adjust well to discipline, and chalked up a number of charges - mainly Absent Without Leave - on five different occasions.

He was recommended for the award of the Medaille Militaire in June 1918 and I have included commentary and evidence in the chronological context which follows. The scan of the citation document is very hard to decipher but I believe that I have been able to make sense of most of it. After being discharged in Australia he enquired after the results of the recommendation, noting that he had been recommended for the Military Medal and a Croix de Guerre. The recommendation was in fact for the Medaille Militaire but he was advised that the award had not been been made. A search of awards made by the French might be interesting, should the record exist and be available.

Details concerning the 12th Battalion AIF taken from the entry on the Australian War Memorial site and the wikipedia entry for the 12th Battalion AIF.

See a copy of James's orginal Record of Service, his entry on the WW1 Embarkation Roll and WW1 Nominal Roll. He was recommended for the award of the French Award, Medaille Militaire and anecdotally for the Military Medal, but as the name of the award is the same in English and French I believe it likely that there was only only one recommendation. Unfortunately it was never followed up and the page which contains the recommendation is annotated "No Trace of Award". While I have attached the recommendation page it is almost illegible. I have done my best to enlarge it and to the limit of my eyesight it reads:

12th Battalion AIF, 2371 Private James Ernest LAPWORTH

During the Battalions tour of duty in the line astride the STRAZBELE railway [illegible] Jun 1918 Private Lapworth was a company runner. During the afternoon our artillery became very consistent in their short shooting*, both shrapnel and H.E. shells bursting in the rear of the posts. Pte Lapworth made the trip from the front line to Coy HQ and back four times through this [illegible] and during the last two trips was subjected to enemy MG fire.

* The artillery is sited behind the infantry trenches. Forays into the contested ground require artillery support firing into the enemy trenchers to suppress any activity there. "Short firing" means that the atillery shells are fired not into the enemy trenches but into the contested ground or trenches occupied by the Australians. This is perversely known as "friendly fire" and can be caused by errors in map reading on the part of those requiring artillery support, errors on the part of those directing the fire, faulty propellant charges in the shells themselves or worn barrels in the guns.

This record of the service of James Ernest Lapworth was prepared by Clive Mitchell-Taylor, September 2019. I originally believed that James was a brother of Harold Lapworth, having appointed his brother Frank as his next-of-kin as Harold had done, but his religion is RC rather than Harold's C of E, and the brother has a different address. A search of the historical birth records does not reveal anything, despite him having given Brisbane as his birthplace, and there is no link to Arthur Lapworth. He may have enlisted under a false name having enlisted under-age, and he may be vaguely related to Harold, but having done the research, his record will stay here.

Abbreviations and Acronyms

Abbreviations or acronyms which have a dotted underline can be expanded by moving the cursor over the term - e.g. WIA. The cursor will be replaced by ? and the expanded abbreviation will be displayed. This is gradually being incorporated into the site, replacing the the current expansion of abbreviations. There may be a discernable delay of about a second before the expansion is first provided.

There is also a separate list of abbreviations which is available through the menu at the top of this page or the hyperlink here.  Abbreviations are inconsistent, even within a single occurence where a term is abbreviated.

There are a number of sources for tracing abbreviations used in Australian and New Zealand service records. Those used when operating with the British or US forces can generally be found, especially in World War 1. Abbreviations used solely within Australia in WW2 are most difficult to trace, particularly when they are regional. Sometimes a 'best guess' is the only answer.

Duplicated Pages

Some of the service information may appear to be duplicated although individual occurrences are not in the same order and different abbreviations used. This occurs when the unit and Army records are amalgamated upon discharge or death in Service.

Service Numbers

Service numbers in WW1 were unique to the unit (e.g. Battalion) or Corps (e.g. Artillery). In WW2 Service Numbers were unique to the State in which they were allotted. For further information about identity numbers for Service personnel, see Regimental and Service Numbers

Dates of Occurrence and Reporting

The date of reporting an incident may be hours, days or months after the date on which incident actually occurred.

The original service record is amended only when the incident is reported which means that events are not necessarily recorded in in strict chronological sequence. This is the date shown on the left of the page of the original record, and also on the left in my transcription but readers should note that at times there may be no date of reporting at all, particularly when service personel are repatriated for discharge at the end of hostilities.

To assist the reader, when transcribing the military record I have done my best to record events in their chronological sequence. This is date is on the right of the page of the original record and also on the right in my transcription.

For clarity I have transcribed all dates into the format d MMM yyyy.

The following information and chronological table are a summary of the entries from the service record of Harold Lapworth. Over the course of the war there was a number of versions of the questions put to the enlistees.


Australian Coat of Arms



Attestation paper of Persons Enlisted for Service Abroad






12th Infantry Battalion


4 August 1915

Questions to be put to the Person Enlisting before Attestation


What is your Name?


James Ernest Lapworth


In what Parish or Town were you born?


In the Parish of Brisbane, in or near the Town of Brisbane in the County of Moreton Bay


Are you a natural born British Subject or a Naturalised British Subject? (N.B. — If the latter, papers to be shown)


Yes (natural born)


What is your age?


19 years 1 months


What is your trade or calling?


Foot Runner (Professional)


Are you, or have you been, an Apprentice? If so, where, to whom, and for what period?




Are you married?




Who is your next of kin? (Address to be stated)


Brother, Mr F. [Frank Joseph] Lapworth
C/- Mrs J. Ryan, Argyle, Hope St., S Brisbane


Have you ever been convicted by the Civil Power?




Have you ever been discharged from any part of His Majesty's Forces, with Ignomony, or as Incorrigible and Worthless, or on account of Conviction of Felony, or of a Sentence of Penal Servitude, or have you been dismissed with Disgrace from the Navy?




Do you now belong to, or have you ever served in, His Majesty's army, the Marines, the Militia, the Militia, Reserve, the Territorial Force, Royal Navy or Colonial Forces? If so, state which, and if not now serving, state cause of discharge.


Yes, Compulsory Training [see Introduction]


Have you stated the whole, if any, of your previous service?




Have you ever been rejected as unfit for His Majesty's Service? If so, on what grounds?




(For married men, widowers with children, and soldier who are the sole support of widowed mother) - Do you understand that no separation allowance will be issue in respect of your service beyond an amount which together with pay would reach eight shillings [$A0.80¢] per day?




Are you prepared to undergo innoculations against small pox and enteric fever?




The foregoing questions were read to the person enlisted in my presence.

I have taken care that he understands each question, and his answer to each question has been duly entered as replied to by him.

I have examined his naturalisation papers and am of opinion that they are correct.

Date   3 Nov 1915   

   Signature of Attesting Officer   


I,    James Ernest Lapworth    swear that I will well and truly serve our Sovereign Lord the King in the Australian Imperial Force from 20 Aug 1915 until the end of the War, and a further period of four months thereafter unless sooner lawfully discharged, dismissed or removed therefrom; and that I will resist His Majesty's enemies and cause His Majesty's peaceto be kept and maintained; and that I will in all matters appertaining to my service, faithfully discharge my duty according to law.


   Signature of Person Enlisted      

Taken and subscribed at        in the State of        this        day of        before me :—

   Signature of Attesting Officer      

* A person enlisting who objects to taking an oath may make an afformation in accordance with the Third Schedule of the Act, and the above form must be amended accordingly. All amendments must be initialed by the Attesting Officer.

Description of    LAPWORTH, JAMES ERNEST    on Enlistment

Age   19   years    4½   months

Distinctive Marks

Gold plated tooth front incisor in upper jaw
Scar on left knee, right shin

Height   5   feet       inches


Weight      123    lbs


Chest    34½   inches


Eyes   Grey


Hair   Brown

Religious Denomination   RC

[Roman Catholic]


I have examined the above-named person and find that he does not present any of the following conditions, viz:—

Scrofula; phthisis; syphilis; impaired constitution; defective intelligence, defects of vision, voice or hearing; hernia; haemorhoids; varicose veins, beyond a limited extent; marked varicocele with unusually pendant testicle; inveterate cutaneous disease; chronic ulcers; traces of corporal punishment, or evidence of having been marked with the letters D. or B.C.; contracted or deformed chest abnormal curvature of spine; or any other disease or physical defect calculated to unfit him for the duties of a soldier.

He can see the required distance with either eye; his heart and lungs are healthy; he has the free use of his joints and limbs; and he declares he is not subject to fits of any description.

I consider him fit for active service.

Date    4 Nov 1915    

Place    Troopship A69    

    Signature of Examining Medical Officer    


I CERTIFY that this attestation of the above-named person is correct and that the required forms have been complied with. I according approve and appoint him to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



    Signature of Officer Commanding    

Chronological Events

Rank Description Date Remarks



5 Aug 1915

There is no record of initial training and attestation took place aboard ship. This is highly probably to have been due to his to his previous (compulsory) military training.


Allotted to 5th/6th Reinforcements to the 26th Battalion

Not known


Embarked on HMAT WARILDA (A69) for Middle East

5 Oct 1915

By the time this draft of reinforcements arrived in Egypt, troops on Gallipoli had been withdrawn and reorganisation of the AIF was taking place. Experienced Gallipoli veterans were placed as the initial backbone of newly created units, while the units themselves were reallocated to form the basis of newly created Brigades and Divisions.


Disembarked at Zeitoun, Egypt.

1 Mar 1916



(1) Slackness on Defaulters Parade
(2) Disobeying Lawful Order
(3) Obscene Language
AWARD 14 days detention

21 Feb 1916



Reallocated to and joined 12th Bn

1 Mar 1916

Most likely after some training in Egypt


Proceeded to join BEF.

29 Mar 1916



Disembarked Marseilles

19 Mar 1916

The first AIF Battalion to arrive in France


Wounded in Action (WIA), Gunshot wound to neck (mild)

24 Jul 1916



Admitted to 3 CCS

24 Jul 1916



Transferred to 6 GH, Rouen

26 Jul 1916



Discharged to Base Depot

26 Jul 1916



Rejoined unit

16 Sep 1916



Admitted to 5 AFA, Rheumatism

4 Dec 1916



Rejoined Unit

14 Dec 1916



(1) Conduct to the prejudice of good order and military discipline
(2) Absent from parade from
0900 to 1100 hours on 8 Mar 1917
AWARD 72 hours Field punishment No 2

8 Mar 1917

Field Punishment No 1 consisted of heavy labouring duties, possibly restraint in handcuffs or fetters and being tied to a post or wheel.
Field Punishment No 2 differed in that the offender was not liable to be attached to a fixed object.


Admitted to 3 AFA
Condition/diagnosis NYD

13 Mar 1917



Transferred to 6 GH, Rouen

20 Mar 1917



Transferred to England

26 Mar 1917



Admitted to Royal Victorian Hospital, Netley. Debility

17 Apr 1917



Discharged from Hospital to Depot, Weymouth

11 Jun 1917



Marches in to No 1 Convalescent Depot and classified B.1.A

16 Jun 1917



OFFENCE Perham Downs
(1) Absent without Leave from
13 Jul 1917 to 2 Aug 1917
(2) Losing by neglect his pass
20 Days Field Punishment No 2
Total forfeiture of pay 44 days

20 Apr 1918



Marched out to Overseas Training Brigade

9 Aug 1917



Proceded overseas to France

5 Sep 1917



Marched in to 1 ADBD, Havre, from England

6 Sep 1917



Rejoined Unit

24 Sep 1917


Wounded in Action (2nd occasion), shrapnel wound to left hand. Admitted to 3 AFA

31 Oct 1917



Discharged from Hospital to duty

8 Dec 1917



Admitted to 53 CCS, with PUO also known as Trench Fever

30 Dec 1917



Transferred to 56th General Hospital, Camiers

2 Jan 1918



Transferred to England

7 Jan 1918



Admitted to Horton County of London War Hospital, PUO

7 Jan 1918



Transferred to 1 AH, Harefield

24 Jan 1918



Absent without leave from
2 Feb 1918 to 3 Feb 1918
AWARD Forfeit 1 days pay, total forfeiture 3 days pay

4 Feb 1918



Discharged from Hospital to furlough and report to 3 Con Depot on 21 Feb 1918

7 Feb 1918



OFFENCE AWL from 21 Feb 1918 to 25 Feb 1918
AWARD Forfeit 15 days pay, total forfeiture 19 days pay

25 Feb 1918



Marched out to Overseas Training Battalion

13 Apr 1918



OFFENCE Overstaying leave from
21 Apr 1918 to 27 Apr 1918
AWARD Forfeit 2 days pay, total forfeiture 3 days pay.

27 Apr 1918



Proceeds overseas to France from Deverill, Folkstone

8 May 1918



Marched in to Convalescent Depot from England

8 May 1918



Proceeded to unit and taken on strength

15 May 1918


At some time in June Private Lapworth was recommended for the Medaille Militaire, a French award. The scanned nomination which is in his personal record has been hand written on an otherwise unused War Diary page which is very difficult to read. In an attempt to clarify I examined the official War Diary of the 12th Battalion for June 1918, and it would appear to have been the action during the 3rd and/or 4th of June. The War Diary cites action to "improve our line on the right of the railway", but makes no mention of "short shooting" by our own artillery however, which is understandable.

After demobilisation Lapworthy was advised by some NCOs that he had been recommended, but his enquiry came to nought. It would appear that the recommendation was never been followed up.

As near as I can make out, the citation was as follows:

12th Battalion AIF

Private James Ernest Lapworth

During the Battalions tour on the line astride the STRAZEELE railway [illegible] June 1918, Pte Lapworth was a company runner. During the afternoon our artillery were very consistent in their short shooting, both shrapnel and H.E. shells bursting in [rear?] of the posts. Pte Lapworth made a trek from the front line to Coy HQ and back four times through the barrage and during the last two times was subjected to enemy MG fire.

The page is annotated in pencil "Medaille Militaire" and below " No trace of Award".


To Hospital, 3 AFA sick, Acne

1 Sep 1918

While this may appear trivial, hygiene conditions in the trenches were such that any infection was dangerous.


Admitted to 3 CCS, Acne

2 Sep 1918



To 5th General Hospital, Rouen, Acne

3 Sep 1918



Transferred to England per HS Grantully Castle

20 Sep 1918



Transferred to 5th Stationary Hospital, Portsmouth

21 Sep 1918



Transferred to 3rd Auxilliary Hospital and admitted


18 Oct 1918


Granted furlough and to report to No 4 Convalescent Depot

2 Nov 1918



Marched in to No 2 Conv Depot ex 4 Conv Depot and furlough

3 Dec 1918



Returned to Australia per HT MORVADA

4 Jan 1919



Disembarked 3rd Military District (Victoria)

20 Feb 1919



By boat to 1st Military District (Queensland)

Not recorded



Discharged at the completion of his obligation

1 Jul 1919


Medals and Dress Embellishments

1914-15 Star, British War Medal 1914-1920, and Victory Medal. Recommended for the French Medaille Militaire in 1918, the 12th Battalion's War Diary is difficult to decipher

Two Wound Stripes.

Not entitled to wear ANZAC 'A'.

Having served from 1915 to 1919 James Lapworth should have been entitled to Four Long Service Stripes and four Overseas Service Chevrons,

Use the hyperlinks or scroll down to see further information on the badges.

Background - Infantry Battalions

[Based on information in Redcoats to Cams, Ian Kuring.]

In December 1914, battalions of about 1000 men were organised into eight companies each divided into half of 60 men and then into two sections of around 30 men. Command was highly centralised with companies commanded by a Captain, half-companies by Lieutentants and sections by a Sergeant.

In early 1915 Australia reduced the number of Companies to four, but doubled their size to more than 220 men. Each rifle company had a headquarters and four platoons. Each platoon had a headquarters and four rifle sections of 10 men commanded by corporals.

From early 1916 light machineguns replaced medium machine guns and were eventually issued to each rifle platoon.

During 1917 rifle platoons were reorganised to have a light machine gun section, a rifle grenade section, a hand grenade/bombing section and a rifle assault section.

By mid 1918, the number of officers had increased to 38 but the number of other ranks had declined to 900. At the same time, the firepower of the battalion was greatly augmented with hand and rifle grenades and Lewis Guns, of which there was 34 per battalion.

Rifle, Short Magazine Lee-Enfield .303in, Mark III
Rifle, Small Magazine Lee-Enfield .303in, Mark III with sword bayonet

12th Battalion, 3rd Brigade, 1st Division

[Information from https://rslvirtualwarmemorial.org.au]


The 12th Battalion was among the first infantry units raised for the AIF during the First World War. Half of the battalion was recruited in Tasmania, a quarter was recruited in South Australia, and a quarter from Western Australia. With the 9th, 10th and 11th Battalions it formed the 3rd Brigade.

The battalion was raised within three weeks of the declaration of war in August 1914 and embarked just two months later. After a brief stop in Albany, Western Australia, the battalion proceeded to Egypt, arriving in early December. The 3rd Brigade was the covering force for the ANZAC landing on 25 April 1915 and so was the first ashore at around 4:30 am. Lieutenant Colonel L. F. Clarke, commander of the 12th Battalion, was killed by a sniper within hours of the landing. The battalion was heavily involved in establishing and defending the front line of the ANZAC position, and in August contributed two companies to the attack on Lone Pine. It was the only battalion in the brigade to do so. The 12th served at ANZAC until the evacuation in December.

After the withdrawal from Gallipoli, the 12th Battalion returned to Egypt and, in March 1916, sailed for France and the Western Front. From then until 1918 the battalion took part in bitter trench warfare. The battalion's first major action in France was at Pozieres in the Somme valley in July 1916. After Pozieres, the battalion fought at Ypres in Flanders and then returned to the Somme for winter.

In 1917 the battalion took part in the brief advance that followed the German Army's retreat to the Hindenburg Line. For their valorous actions near Boursies during this advance, Captain J. E. 'Jim' Newland, commanding A Company, and Sergeant J. W. Whittle were each awarded the Victoria Cross. The battalion subsequently returned to Belgium to participate in the offensive that became known as the Third Battle of Ypres.

In March and April 1918 the battalion helped to stop the German spring offensive, and later participated in the great allied offensive of 1918, fighting near Amiens on 8 August 1918. This advance by British and empire troops was the greatest success in a single day on the Western Front, one that German General Erich Ludendorff described as "the black day of the German Army in this war".

The battalion continued operations until late September 1918. At 11 am on 11 November 1918, the guns fell silent. Soon after, the members of the AIF began to return to Australia for demobilisation and discharge.

Battle Honours:

Albert 1918, Amiens, ANZAC, Broodeseinde, Bullecourt, Defence of ANZAC, Egypt 1915-16, Epehy, France and Flanders 1916-18, Gallipoli 1915, Hazebrouck, Hindenburg Line, Landing at ANZAC, Lys, Menin Road, Passchendaele, Poelcappelle, Polygon Wood, Poziéres, Sari Bair-Lone Pine, Somme 1916-18, Suvla, Ypres 1917

1914-15 Star

[Extract from Ribbons and Medals: Naval, Military, Air Force and Civil, Captain H. Taprell Dorling, DSO RN,
George Philip & Son, 33 Fleet Street, London EC4, 1940]
1914-15 Star

The decoration consists of a four-pointed star in bright bronze as shown, with the date 1914-15 on the central scroll. The reverse is plain, and is stamped with the name and unit of the recipient. The ribbon is red, white and blue, shaded and watered, worn with the red nearest the centre of the breast. It is atached to the medal through a ring.

It is similar in shape and description to the 1914 Star, to which few, if any, Australians were entitled. Those entitled were those who had already served with the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force (AN&MEF) in the operations to capture German New Guinea in 1914.

The decoration, sanctioned in 1918, was issued "to all officers, warrant officers, non-commissioned officers and men of the British, Dominion, Colonial and Indian Forces, including civilian medical practitioners, nursing sisters, nurses and others eployed with military hospitals, who actually served on the establishment of a unit in a theatre of war as defined in Appendix 'A'. Individuals in possession of the 1914 Star will not be eligible for the award of this decoration."

Appendix 'A' included the Western, Eastern, Egyptian, African, Asiatic and Australasian Theatres of war, with commencement dates individual to countries and campaigns.

British War Medal 1914-20

[Extract from Ribbons and Medals: Naval, Military, Air Force and Civil, Captain H. Taprell Dorling, DSO RN,
George Philip & Son, 33 Fleet Street, London EC4, 1940]
British War Medal

This medal was approved by King George V in 1919 to record the bringing of the war to a successful conclusion and the arduous services rendered by His Majesty's Forces.

The medal, which is supended from its ribbon by means of a straight clasp, without swivel, bears on the obverse the effigy of His Majesty - exactly similar to that on a half-crown - with the legend 'Georgivus V : Omn : Rex et Ind : Imp'.

The reverse bears a design which represents St George on horseback, trampling underfoot the eagle shield of the central powers and a skull and crossbones, the emblems of death. Overhead is the risen sun of victory. The male figure, rather than a symbolical female one, was chosen because man had borne the brunt of the fighting. The figure was mounted on horseback as symbolical of man's mind controlling force (represented by the horse) of far greater strength than his own. The design is thus also symbolical of the mechanical and scientific appliances which helped so largely to win the war.

The ribbon has a orange watered centre with stripes of white and black at each side and with borders of royal blue. It is stated that the colours have no particular signification.

Victory Medal

[Extract from Ribbons and Medals: Naval, Military, Air Force and Civil, Captain H. Taprell Dorling, DSO RN,
George Philip & Son, 33 Fleet Street, London EC4, 1940]

This medal, of bronze, bears on the obverse a winged figure of Victory, full length in the middle of the medal and full face; the borders and the backgound plain, without either incription or date. On the reverse is an inscription. "The Great War for Civilization." and either the names of the different Allied and Associated Powers, or their coats of arms.

The rim is plain, and the medal hangs from a ring. The ribbon is red in the centre, with green and violet on either side shaded to form the colours of two rainbows.

It has also been approved that any officer or man who has been "mentioned in despatches" shall wear a small bronze oak leaf on the ribbon of this medal. Only one oak leaf is so worn, no matter how many "mentions" the wearer may have received.

The medal is designed to obviate the exchange of Allied Commemorative war medals, and is issued only to those who actually served on the establishment of a unit or ship in a theatre of war. [This is an important distinction, as those Australians who served only in Australia, or only in Australia and England, were not entitled to the award.]

The Rising Sun Badge

This version of the Rising Sun Badge was worn by soldiers of the 1st and 2nd Australian Imperial Forces, and the badge has become an integral part of the Digger tradition.

Worn on the the upturned brim of the slouch hat, it is readily identified with the spirit of ANZAC.

There are a number of versions of the genesis of the badge, the most widely accepted being that it derived from a Trophy of Arms - various swords and bayonets mounted on  a semi-circular display in Victoria Barracks, Melbourne.

The original version worn in South Africa was modified in 1904 and worn by Australian soldiers through two World Wars.

Later changes were made to the style of the crown and the wording on the scroll. The "King's Crown" is the one shown to the left, while arches of the "Queen's Crown" rise at the same angle as the base of the crown, curve at their highest point to a level mid-way on the orb below the cross and then down to below the orb.

In 1949 the scroll was changed to read "Australian Military Forces".

In 1969 the badge was modified to incorporate the 7-pointed Federation Star with a central Queen's crown over the Torse Wreath (a twisted roll of fabric) from the original 1902 version, and the scroll wording changed to "Australia".

In the 75th anniversary year of the the ANZAC landings at Gallipoli, there was a drive to return to traditional accoutrements worn by Australian soldiers during the World Wars, which clearly identify the Australian Army. The Queen's crown returned to its central position and the scroll now reads "The Australian Army'.



The brass letter 'A' to represent service related to Gallipoli (ANZAC) was authorised to be worn 'over unit colour patches on both sleeves of the service dress jacket and greatcoat" by Military Order 354 of 18 Aug 17 and AIF Order 937 of 6 Nov 17, as amended in terms of qualification by Military Order 20 of 19 Jan 18 and by AIF Order 1084 of 25 Jan 18.

The size of the letter 'A', introduced as one inch in height (AIF Order 994 of 30 Nov 17), was reduced to three-quarters of an inch by AIF Order 1012 of 11 Dec 17. Provision for wearing the brass letter 'A' was also included in General Routine Order 0.815 of 17 Dec 43 and GRO 310 of 7 Dec 45.

Wound Stripe

Army Order No.204 Headquarters, 1st A.N.Z.A.C., 9th August, 1916. (slightly amended for layout)

Wound Stripes

The following distinction in dress will be worn on the service dress jacket by all officers and soldiers who have been wounded in any of the campaigns since 4th August 1914 :

Long Service Badges

[Image from http://www.diggerhistory.info]
Long Service Badges
A.I.F. ORDER No.470, 24 January 1917 (slightly amended for layout)

The question of the issue of a badge to members of the AIF who have completed a certain period of service has received consideration, and approval has been given for the issue of a badge for long service combined with good conduct, subject to the following conditions.

Overseas Service Chevrons

[Image from http://www.diggerhistory.info]

Overseas Service Chevrons

Australian Imperial Force Order No.1053, January 1918 (Slightly amended for layout)

His Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of chevrons to denote service overseas since the 4th August 1914.

Some Government Issued Badges

Nearest Female
Relative Badge

War Widows
Guild Brooch

Silver War Badge

Discharged Returned
Soldier Badge

Government issued badge in enamel and sterling silver issued to the wife, mother or nearest female relative of a serving soldier. Additional bars were suspended below for further individuals.

Membership badge of a Kookaburra in sterling silver, issued by the Government to the widows of men who lost their lives due to their service. Numbered on the reverse.

Awarded to service personnel who sustained a wound, or contracted sickness of disability in the course of the war as a result of which they were invalided out, or to soldiers who had retired during the course of the war.

First issued in 1916. Slight variations are indicative of a number of makers. 267,300 were issued. Numbered on the reverse but the numbers have no link withlength of service or Service Number.

[Badge information collated from Australian War Memorial, "Australians Awarded" by Clive Johnson and en.wikipedia.com]