2448 Sergeant Clarence George Lewis MSM
27th Infantry Battalion,
7th Infantry Brigade,
2nd Division

Signal Company, 2nd Division [L] &
Australian Army Pay Corps (AAPC) [R]
1st Australian Imperial Force 1914-1919

This file last updated 2 September, 2023 0:38


No better portrait found

The following information and chronological table are a summary of the entries from the World War One service record of Clarence George Lewis.

Part of this service record appears to be missing and much is indecipherable or contradictory. Assigned to the 5th Reinforcements to the 27th Battalion, Lewis embarked for the Middle East on 13 Oct 1915 but there are no entries for disembarkation or training there.

He was quickly seconded to the Divisional Signals Company and rapid promotion followed. While transferred into the Pay Corps after the war had ended, his service with the Signals Company was rewarded with a Meritorious Service Medal.

Clarence Lewis was heavily engaged with his community. He was awarded The Queen's Coronation Medal in 1953 and made a Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) in the 1956 New Year's Honours List. His MBE, MSM, war and Coronation medals make a very distinguished group. I have included information about the additional medals, below. They are in the order of seniority in which they would have been worn - MBE, MSM, campaign medals and Coronation Medal

This record prepared for Robert 'Bob' Nolan, grandson of Clarence Lewis, by Clive Mitchell-Taylor - 23 Jul 2018.

View Clarence Lewis's Service record at the National Archive of Australia, WW1 Nominal Roll , Embarkation Roll as well as the Citation for his Meritorious Service Medal.

A report from the Adelaide Advertiser dated Friday 3 Nov 1916 is embedded within the chronology below.

Abbreviations and Acronyms

Abbreviations or acronyms which have a dotted underline can be expanded by moving the cursor over the term - e.g. WIA. The cursor will be replaced by ? and the expanded abbreviation will be displayed. This is gradually being incorporated into the site, replacing the the current expansion of abbreviations. There may be a discernable delay of about a second before the expansion is first provided.

There is also a separate list of abbreviations which is available through the menu at the top of this page or the hyperlink here.  Abbreviations are inconsistent, even within a single occurence where a term is abbreviated.

There are a number of sources for tracing abbreviations used in Australian and New Zealand service records. Those used when operating with the British or US forces can generally be found, especially in World War 1. Abbreviations used solely within Australia in WW2 are most difficult to trace, particularly when they are regional. Sometimes a 'best guess' is the only answer.

Duplicated Pages

Some of the service information may appear to be duplicated although individual occurrences are not in the same order and different abbreviations used. This occurs when the unit and Army records are amalgamated upon discharge or death in Service.

Service Numbers

Service numbers in WW1 were unique to the unit (e.g. Battalion) or Corps (e.g. Artillery). In WW2 Service Numbers were unique to the State in which they were allotted. For further information about identity numbers for Service personnel, see Regimental and Service Numbers

Dates of Occurrence and Reporting

The date of reporting an incident may be hours, days or months after the date on which incident actually occurred.

The original service record is amended only when the incident is reported which means that events are not necessarily recorded in in strict chronological sequence. This is the date shown on the left of the page of the original record, and also on the left in my transcription but readers should note that at times there may be no date of reporting at all, particularly when service personel are repatriated for discharge at the end of hostilities.

To assist the reader, when transcribing the military record I have done my best to record events in their chronological sequence. This is date is on the right of the page of the original record and also on the right in my transcription.

For clarity I have transcribed all dates into the format d MMM yyyy.

Enlistment Details

Service Number



Clarence George Lewis

Born at

Blackwood, South Australia


22 years as at 7 Jul 1915 (Birth dates not recorded, only age on enlistment)

Trade or Calling

Civil Servant

Marital Status

Not Married

Next of Kin

Mother - Elizabeth Lewis
West Mitcham, South Australia

Previous Military Service

Yes, Voluntary Cadets, 4 years until disbanded

Attested at

Keswick Barracks, South Australia

Date of Enlistment

7 Jul 1915


5 foot 5¼ inches [166 cm]


126 pounds [57.3 Kg]


31 - 33 inches [78.75 cm - 83.8 cm]






Dark Brown

Distinguishing Marks

Vaccination scar Left

Religious Denomination

Church of England


27th Battalion, 5th Brigade

Chronological Events







7 Jul 1915


'NCO Class'

16 Jul 1915 -
15 Aug 1915

It appears as if his previous training was recognised, and there is no indication of other training prior to his promotion.

Acting Sergeant

Promoted Acting Sergeant, although the entry is later struck out

17 Aug 1915



Assigned to 5th reinforcements 27th Infantry Battalion

13 Oct 1915



Embarked on HMAT "THEMISTOCLES" (A32) for overseas

13 Oct 1915


Taken on strength of 27th Battalion at Tel El Kebir (Egypt)

15 Jan 1916


Lance Corporal

Promoted Lance Corporal

15 Jan 1916


Lance Corporal

Transferred to 2nd Australian Division Signal Company

9 May 1916



Taken on Strength of 2nd Division Signal Company

9 May 1916

Reverts to substantive rank on leaving Battalion - note that while his rank with the 27th Battalion was Private, his reversion to Sapper is in keeping with the fact that the Signals Companies were part of the Engineer Corps (see below).

Lance Corporal

Promoted to Lance Corporal

1 Oct 1916


Lance Corporal

3 Nov 1916

Extract from local paper - incident occured some time before the reporting.





Lance Corporal

Sick to Hospital, France [Nature of illness not noted]

21 Nov 1916


Lance Corporal

Rejoined unit

23 Nov 1916


Lance Corporal

Leave to England

22 Jul 1917


Lance Corporal

Returned from leave

4 Aug 1917


Lance Corporal

On leave to Paris

16 Oct 1917


Lance Corporal

Returned from leave

21 Oct 1917



Promoted to Temporary Corporal

20 Dec 1917


Promoted to Substantive Corporal

12 Jan 1918



Promoted to Sergeant to complete establishment

23 Mar 1918


Awarded Meritorious Service Medal (MSM), promulgated in Commonwealth of Australa Gazette No 67 Dated 3 Jun 1919 and Supplement 31132 to the London Gazette dated 17 Jan 1919.
The citation is as follows:
During the period April/September 1918, this N.C.O. has performed the duties of D.R. Sergeant and Signal Officer Superintendant at Divisional Heaquarters Signal Office in a highly efficient manner.
His work has been consistently of the highest order, showing remarkable devotion to duty.
Particularlarly when in charge of Advanced Divisional Signal Offices in action on the SOMME, at FRANVILLERS, VILLERS-BRETONNEUX, and subsequently during the advance that followed those operations.
His energetic, and capable management of these stations, contributed greatly to the smooth and efficient working of forward communications.
(Signed) CHARLES ROSETHAL, Major-General
Commanding Second Australian Division

8 Jan 1919

Given its prestige, post-nominals and annuity of £10, the award of the MSM is no small matter.

With few wireless assets and lines subject to destruction by explosives and projectiles, "D.R. Sergeant" can only be interpreted as
"Despatch Rider Sergeant", and as super- intendant of the Divisional Headquarters Signal Office this would be one of his responsibilities. It was critical for the commander to have accurate and timely knowledge of where his troops were, how they fared in relation to the plan of attack, and know how and when they could be redeployed in order to achieve the objective(s).


Detached from 2 Division Signal Company for duty with Australian Army Pay Corps

10 Jun 1919



Discharged at the completion of his service

10 Feb 1920


As President of the League of Empire, awarded the Coronation Medal


SA Index Cards to recipients of Coronation Medals (GRG 24/257)


As Secretary of the Royal Institute of Public Administration, South Australia, is made a Member of the Order of the British Empire, (Civil Division)

2 Jan 1956





Medals and Dress Embellishments

Meritorious Service Medal, 1914-15 Star, British War Medal 1914-1920 and Victory Medal.

No Wound Stripes.

Four Long Service Stripes and five Overseas Service Chevrons.

Awarded Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal in 1952 and made a Member of the Order of the British Empire in 1956

Use the hyperlinks or scroll down to see further information on the badges.

Background - Infantry Battalions

[Based on information in Redcoats to Cams, Ian Kuring.]

In December 1914, battalions of about 1000 men were organised into eight companies each divided into half of 60 men and then into two sections of around 30 men. Command was highly centralised with companies commanded by a Captain, half-companies by Lieutentants and sections by a Sergeant.

In early 1915 Australia reduced the number of Companies to four, but doubled their size to more than 220 men. Each rifle company had a headquarters and four platoons. Each platoon had a headquarters and four rifle sections of 10 men commanded by corporals.

From early 1916 light machineguns replaced medium machine guns and were eventually issued to each rifle platoon.

During 1917 rifle platoons were reorganised to have a light machine gun section, a rifle grenade section, a hand grenade/bombing section and a rifle assault section.

By mid 1918, the number of officers had increased to 38 but the number of other ranks had declined to 900. At the same time, the firepower of the battalion was greatly augmented with hand and rifle grenades and Lewis Guns, of which there was 34 per battalion.

Rifle, Short Magazine Lee-Enfield .303in, Mark III
Rifle, Small Magazine Lee-Enfield .303in, Mark III with sword bayonet

27th Battalion, 7th Brigade, 2nd Divison

[Information from https://rslvirtualwarmemorial.org.au]


The 27th Battalion AIF was raised in March 1915. Lieutenant Colonel Walter Dollman VD (who had formerly served in the forerunner volunteer militia unit, the 74th Infantry) was appointed Commanding Officer. The Battalion marched into the newly established Mitcham Camp south of the city of Adelaide, on 16 April 1915.

The 27th Battalion AIF was known as "Unley's Own", as many of the men who first enlisted in World War 1 were from the district. Lt Col Dollman had served as Mayor of Unley, and it was down Unley Road that the troops marched to be greeted and celebrated at the Town Hall prior to their embarkation for Egypt, Gallipoli and then ultimately to the Western Front.

After weeks of intensive training, route marches, farewell parades in front of enthusiastic crowds, and rousing speeches by the Governor of the day and other dignitaries, the Battalion embarked on the HMAT Geelong on 31 May 1915, bound for Egypt where further training was undergone.

In September the Battalion landed at Gallipoli where it remained until the evacuation in December. In addition to enemy action, by this late stage of the campaign, poor hygiene and sanitation had begun to take its toll in the form of quite serious disease such as enteric fever (typhoid) and other maladies resulting in many evacuations, some right back to Australia. Casualties included the CO, Lieutenant Colonel Dollman. As winter approached so plans for an evacuation were put in place and the ANZAC troops were withdrawn in perhaps the most successful phase of the entire campaign in the most difficult phase of war. Effecting a clean break without detection and exploitation by the Turks was achieved masterfully.

During the re-consolidation and "Doubling of the AIF" which took place in Egypt, many 27th Battalion men and reinforcements were posted to a range of Brigade Divisional and other units as the new organisation took shape, and new drafts of reinforcements arrived.

The Second Division embarked for Marseilles in April aboard a range of ships. From Marseilles they entrained for a journey to the very northern extremity of France near the Belgian border around the Armentieres sector, known colloquially as "The Nursery". It was here that troops new to the Front were conditioned to Trench Warfare, albeit in a relatively quiet sector of the Front.

Thereafter the Battalion fought with distinction throughout the Western Front, first entering the battlefield of Somme in April 1916. Along with the 28th Battalion, the 27th were the first Australian troops in the front line on the Somme.

The 27th Battalion was committed to the fighting near Pozieres as part of the Second Division AIF, along with the First and Fourth Divisions. On the 4th August 1916, the 27th Battalion was on the left flank of the 2nd Division attack aimed at capturing the heights above Pozieres. The 27th Battalion's axis of advance took it through the Windmill, or rather the ruins of the 17th Century windmill, which had the dominant view of the surrounding area. They captured it, and held it in the face of unrelenting artillery fire and counter attacks.

The Second Division was relieved in place by the Fourth Division, two nights later. By coincidence, the 27th Battalion was relieved by the 48th, drawn from South Australia and Western Australia. When the 48th took over from the 27th they reported that there was no one left alive in the forward positions. The 48th suffered similarly high casualties and indeed the area around the windmill is said to contain more South Australian DNA than any other piece of ground anywhere in the world save for metropolitan cemeteries in South Australia itself.

The 27th had a short respite for reinforcement and rest and was then committed to combat again in the second phase of the battle near Mouquet Farm.

Until the 9th September the 27th moved from from one camp to another, generally on foot. They finished up in France at Steenvorde (France). The battalion remained at Steenvorde until the 5th October when they entrained with the rest of the Brigade for Ypres where they relieved the 19th Battalion in the Salient and became the right battalion on the Brigade front. Here they remained until relieved by the 25th Battalion on the 12th October, whereupon they moved into barracks at Ypres.

They returned to the Somme from the 16th October when they entrained for St Lawrence Camp. Again they were on the march; occasionally they managed to stay two nights in one place. Eventually, on the 27th October, they arrived at Dernancourt, where they engaged in consolidation and training before heading to the Front near Le Barque, where they relieved the 53rd Battalion.

In early November the 7th Brigade was involved in a major action at Flers, just to the south east of Pozieres. The first Flers attack was launched on 5 November with the 1st Brigade advancing against trenches north of Gueudecourt, and the 7th against a complex of trenches known as "the Maze". Both attacks managed to capture some of their objectives, The first Flers attack was launched on 5 November with the 1st Brigade advancing against trenches north of Gueudecourt, and the 7th against a complex of trenches known as "the Maze". The 27ths role was an attack on the enemy position in Bayonet Trench. While they held on there were no reinforcements available and they lacked secure flanks.

Both attacks managed to capture some of their objectives, but were eventually forced to withdraw. Another attack was launched against the Maze by the 5th and 7th Brigades on the morning of 17 November, it also succeeded in capturing a portion of the German trenches, but a surprise attack two days later returned this to the enemy.

The 27th Battalion lost 5 Officers and 72 Other Ranks killed. A further 5 Officers and 136 Other Ranks were wounded. 75 were listed as missing in action. Many have no known grave.

Mid-November marked the end of Field Marshal Haigh’s Somme offensive, the cost of which was hideous in the extreme.

The Second Division endured winter quarters near Guedecourt, not far from Pozieres. It was a bitterly cold winter, the worst in living memory, and the conditions there took their toll; more than 20,000 casualties across the Australian Divisions. Logistics were a nightmare made worse by the mud, which had come to characterise the battlefield.

Battle Honours:

Somme 1916-18, Pozieres, Bullecourt, Ypres 1917, Menin Road, Polygon Wood, Broodeseinde, Poelcappelle, Passchendaele, Amiens, Albert 1918, Mont St Quentin, Hindenburg Line, Beaurevoir, France and Flanders 1916-18, Gallipoli 1915, Egypt 1915-16

Second Division Signals Company



Little specific information is available about the composition of the Divisional Signal Corps Companies, their role or equipment. There were some wireless communications, but for the most part communications relied on wires, much of which was laid in no-man's land prior to the launch of offensives, or coloured signal flares in pe-arranged sequence. Signals at this time was a branch of the Engineers (as were the Works, Mining, Railway and Survey units), hence the purple shoulder patch.

Some idea of the conditions under which the Despatch Riders worked can be gained from the article seen in Clarence Lewis' record of service, above.

Battalion signallers (including Albert Mitchell and John Evans whose records are on this site, physically laid telecommunications cables in no-man's land - the area between the trenchesof the Allies and their opponents - before any major activities, and made running repairs where lines were broken by artillery or other hazards. Some were lucky enough to survive the ordeal.

2nd Australian Division Army Pay Corps



There is no evidence that Clarence Lewis was a member of the Australian Army Pay Corps, and while his name does not appear on any of the WW1 lists of members of the AAPC, he was certainly seconded to the Pay Corps to assist with the repatriation of the thousands of Australians who served in France and England.

His contribution was obviously valued as he was not discharged until early 1920.

After having distinguished himself in both combat and administration, he went on to give a lifetime of service to his country and State, being made a Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) and awarded the Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal.

Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE)

[Ribbons and Medals: Navy, Military, Air Force and Civil, Captain H. Taprell Dorling DSO RN, 1940 pps 19-21]
Member of the Order of the British Empire

The Order was established in June 1917 for Services to the Empire at home, in India and in the Dominions and Colonies, other than those rendered by the Navy and Army. It could be conferred upon officers of the Fighting Services, for services of a non-combatant character. The Order ranks next in precedence to the Royal Victorian Order, and is conferred upon ladies as well as upon men.

The badge for Members is a cross patonce in silver and the in 1936 the ribbon for the Civil Division was altered from purple to rose-pink edged in pearl-grey, while the Military Division added a central stripe in pearl-grey.

The ribbon of the Military Division with the central stripe is illustrated here, while the suspended Cross is the same for both military and civilian recipients..

With the introduction of the Australian Honours system, Australians are no longer eligible for the award, however those who were previously awarded under the Imperial system continue to wear them.

Meritorious Service Medal (MSM)

[Ribbons and Medals: Navy, Military, Air Force and Civil, Captain H. Taprell Dorling DSO RN, 1940 pps 93, 94]

This medal was instituted in 1845 for Army and four years later for the Royal Marines. and its award can be accompanied by an annuity not exceeding £20 a year. The ribbon was crimson for Army, and dark blue for Royal Marines. In 1919 men of the Royal Navy became eligible for the MSM with the same crimson ribbon with narrow white edges and a narrow white strip down the centre.

The Army medal has on the obverse the bust of the King in Field Marshal's uniform and for the Navy His Majesty was wearing the uniform of an Admiralof the Fleet. The reverse in all cases has a wreath with a crown at the apex, and within the wreath the inscription "For Meritorious Service". Recipients are entitled to use the letters MSM after their names.

Army - Previous to the war of 1914-18 the medal was awarded to certain specially selected Sergeants of long service, and then very rarely, in which case it was worn from the same ribbon as the Long Service and Good Conduct Medal, but instead of it. In October 1916, however, the grant of the medal was extended to Sergeants, other NCOs and Men, irrespective of length of service, "for valuable and meritorious services".

In January, 1917, the conditions were again amended to "Warrant Officers, NSOs and men who are duly recommended for the grant in respect of gallant conduct in the performance of military duty otherwise than in action against the enemy, or saving or attempting to save the life of an officer or sodlier or for devotion to duty in a theatre of war."

It was also laid down that it could be worn in addition to the Long Service and Good Conduct Medal. Bars may be awarded for further acts, and recipients are entitled to an annuity of £10. When one annuitant dies the annuity is realloted. army awards of this medal during the war of 1914-18 and up to 31 May 1920 were: Overseas, 21,963; Home, 2,741; Bars: Overseas, 4; Home, 1.

1914-15 Star

[Extract from Ribbons and Medals: Naval, Military, Air Force and Civil, Captain H. Taprell Dorling, DSO RN,
George Philip & Son, 33 Fleet Street, London EC4, 1940]
1914-15 Star

The decoration consists of a four-pointed star in bright bronze as shown, with the date 1914-15 on the central scroll. The reverse is plain, and is stamped with the name and unit of the recipient. The ribbon is red, white and blue, shaded and watered, worn with the red nearest the centre of the breast. It is atached to the medal through a ring.

It is similar in shape and description to the 1914 Star, to which few, if any, Australians were entitled. Those entitled were those who had already served with the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force (AN&MEF) in the operations to capture German New Guinea in 1914.

The decoration, sanctioned in 1918, was issued "to all officers, warrant officers, non-commissioned officers and men of the British, Dominion, Colonial and Indian Forces, including civilian medical practitioners, nursing sisters, nurses and others eployed with military hospitals, who actually served on the establishment of a unit in a theatre of war as defined in Appendix 'A'. Individuals in possession of the 1914 Star will not be eligible for the award of this decoration."

Appendix 'A' included the Western, Eastern, Egyptian, African, Asiatic and Australasian Theatres of war, with commencement dates individual to countries and campaigns.

British War Medal 1914-20

[Extract from Ribbons and Medals: Naval, Military, Air Force and Civil, Captain H. Taprell Dorling, DSO RN,
George Philip & Son, 33 Fleet Street, London EC4, 1940]
British War Medal

This medal was approved by King George V in 1919 to record the bringing of the war to a successful conclusion and the arduous services rendered by His Majesty's Forces.

The medal, which is supended from its ribbon by means of a straight clasp, without swivel, bears on the obverse the effigy of His Majesty - exactly similar to that on a half-crown - with the legend 'Georgivus V : Omn : Rex et Ind : Imp'.

The reverse bears a design which represents St George on horseback, trampling underfoot the eagle shield of the central powers and a skull and crossbones, the emblems of death. Overhead is the risen sun of victory. The male figure, rather than a symbolical female one, was chosen because man had borne the brunt of the fighting. The figure was mounted on horseback as symbolical of man's mind controlling force (represented by the horse) of far greater strength than his own. The design is thus also symbolical of the mechanical and scientific appliances which helped so largely to win the war.

The ribbon has a orange watered centre with stripes of white and black at each side and with borders of royal blue. It is stated that the colours have no particular signification.

Victory Medal

[Extract from Ribbons and Medals: Naval, Military, Air Force and Civil, Captain H. Taprell Dorling, DSO RN,
George Philip & Son, 33 Fleet Street, London EC4, 1940]

This medal, of bronze, bears on the obverse a winged figure of Victory, full length in the middle of the medal and full face; the borders and the backgound plain, without either incription or date. On the reverse is an inscription. "The Great War for Civilization." and either the names of the different Allied and Associated Powers, or their coats of arms.

The rim is plain, and the medal hangs from a ring. The ribbon is red in the centre, with green and violet on either side shaded to form the colours of two rainbows.

It has also been approved that any officer or man who has been "mentioned in despatches" shall wear a small bronze oak leaf on the ribbon of this medal. Only one oak leaf is so worn, no matter how many "mentions" the wearer may have received.

The medal is designed to obviate the exchange of Allied Commemorative war medals, and is issued only to those who actually served on the establishment of a unit or ship in a theatre of war. [This is an important distinction, as those Australians who served only in Australia, or only in Australia and England, were not entitled to the award.]

Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal

[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen_Elizabeth_II_Coronation_Medal extracted 14 Sep 2018]

The Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal is a commemorative medal which was instituted to celebrate the coronation of the Queen on 2 Jun 1953.

The medal was awarded as a personal souvenir from the Queen to members of the Royal Family and selected officers of state, members of the Royal Household, government officials, mayors, public servants, local government officials, members of the Navy, Army and Air Force and Police in Britain, her colonies and Dominions. It was struck at the Royal Mint and issued immediately after the coronation.

A total of 129,051 medals were award, including 11,561 to Australians and 12,500 to Canadians.

The Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal is a silver disk, 1.25 inches in diameter. The obverse features a crowned effigy of Queen Elizabeth II, facing right, in a high-collared ermine cloak and wearing the collar of the Garter and the Badge of the Bath. There is no raised rim and no legend. The reverse shows the Royal Cypher "EIIR" surmounted by a large crown. The legend around the edge reads "QUEEN ELIZABETH II CROWNED 2nd JUNE 1953". The medal was designed by Cecil Thomas.

The dark red ribbon is 32mm wide with 2mm wide white edges and two narrow dark blue stripes in the centre, each 2mm wide and 1.6mm apart.

The Rising Sun Badge

This version of the Rising Sun Badge was worn by soldiers of the 1st and 2nd Australian Imperial Forces, and the badge has become an integral part of the Digger tradition.

Worn on the the upturned brim of the slouch hat, it is readily identified with the spirit of ANZAC.

There are a number of versions of the genesis of the badge, the most widely accepted being that it derived from a Trophy of Arms - various swords and bayonets mounted on a semi-circular display in Victoria Barracks, Melbourne.

The original version worn in South Africa was modified in 1904 and worn by Australian soldiers through two World Wars.

Later changes were made to the style of the crown and the wording on the scroll. The "King's Crown" is the one shown to the left, while arches of the "Queen's Crown" rise at the same angle as the base of the crown, curve at their highest point to a level mid-way on the orb below the cross and then down to below the orb.

In 1949 the scroll was changed to read "Australian Military Forces".

In 1969 the badge was modified to incorporate the 7-pointed Federation Star with a central Queen's crown over the Torse Wreath (a twisted roll of fabric) from the original 1902 version, and the scroll wording changed to "Australia".

In the 75th anniversary year of the the ANZAC landings at Gallipoli, there was a drive to return to traditional accoutrements worn by Australian soldiers during the World Wars, which clearly identify the Australian Army. The Queen's crown returned to its central position and the scroll now reads "The Australian Army'.



The brass letter 'A' to represent service related to Gallipoli (ANZAC) was authorised to be worn 'over unit colour patches on both sleeves of the service dress jacket and greatcoat" by Military Order 354 of 18 Aug 17 and AIF Order 937 of 6 Nov 17, as amended in terms of qualification by Military Order 20 of 19 Jan 18 and by AIF Order 1084 of 25 Jan 18.

The size of the letter 'A', introduced as one inch in height (AIF Order 994 of 30 Nov 17), was reduced to three-quarters of an inch by AIF Order 1012 of 11 Dec 17. Provision for wearing the brass letter 'A' was also included in General Routine Order 0.815 of 17 Dec 43 and GRO 310 of 7 Dec 45.

Wound Stripe

Army Order No.204 Headquarters, 1st A.N.Z.A.C., 9th August, 1916. (slightly amended for layout)

Wound Stripes

The following distinction in dress will be worn on the service dress jacket by all officers and soldiers who have been wounded in any of the campaigns since 4th August 1914 :

    Stripes of gold Russia braid No.1, two inches [2.5cm] in length sewn perpendicularly on the left forearm sleeve of the jacket to mark each occasion on which wounded.

    In the case of officers, the lower end of the first strip of gold braid will be immediately above the upper point of the flap on the cuff.

    Warrant officers, non-commissioned officers and men will wear the gold braid on the left forearm sleeve, the lower edge of the braid to be three inches from the bottom of the sleeve.

    Subsequent occasions on which wounded, will be placed on either side of the original one at half inch interval.

    Gold braid and sews will be obtained free on indent from the Army Ordnance Department; the sewing on will be carried out regimentally without expense to the public.

Long Service Badges

[Image from http://www.diggerhistory.info]
Long Service Badges
A.I.F. ORDER No.470, 24 January 1917 (slightly amended for layout)

The question of the issue of a badge to members of the AIF who have completed a certain period of service has received consideration, and approval has been given for the issue of a badge for long service combined with good conduct, subject to the following conditions.

    The badge will consist of an inverted single chevron of service braid to be worn on the left forearm - the point of the chevron to be 3 inches [7.6cm] above the edge of the cuff.

    Warrant and non-commissioned officers and men, will be eligible for the badge, which will not carry an increased pay or allowance.

    One chevron will be worn for each complete year's service in the Australian Imperial Force from the date of embarkation in Australia.

    No badge will be issued to any man who, during the 12 months, has incurred a regimental entry (i.e. an entry involving forfeiture of pay) in his sheet.

    Time absent from the unit in hospital or elsewhere on account of wounds or sickness, not the result of misconduct, will count as service towards earning the badge.

    A man in possession of a badge will forfeit same on being convicted of any offence involving a forfeiture of pay , but will be eligible to regain the badge after 6 months good conduct, from the date of forfeiture.

    The illegal wearing of this badge will be a crime under A.A. Section 40.

Overseas Service Chevrons

[Image from http://www.diggerhistory.info]

Overseas Service Chevrons

Australian Imperial Force Order No.1053, January 1918 (Slightly amended for layout)

His Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of chevrons to denote service overseas since the 4th August 1914.

    Chevrons of two colours have been approved.

      The first chevron if earned on or before 31st December 1914, will be red.

      If earned on or after 1st January 1915, it will be blue.

      All additional chevrons after the first will be blue.

    The chevrons will be worsted embroidery, 1/4 inch [0.63cm] in width, the arms 4 inches [10.2cm] long. They will be worn inverted on the right forearm:

    In the case of officers, the apex of the lowest chevron will be 1 inch [2.5cm] above the upper point of the flap on the cuff.

    In the case of warrant-officers, non-commissioned officers and men, the apex of the lowest chevron will be midway between the seams and four inches [10.2cm] above the bottom edge of the sleeve.

    The red chevron will be worn below the blue one. They will not be worn on greatcoats.

    In the case of Australians, the first chevron was earned the date the individual left Australia. Additional chevrons were awarded for each successive aggregate period of 12 months service outside Australia.

Some Government Issued Badges

Nearest Female
Relative Badge

War Widows
Guild Brooch

Silver War Badge

Discharged Returned
Soldier Badge

Government issued badge in enamel and sterling silver issued to the wife, mother or nearest female relative of a serving soldier. Additional bars were suspended below for further individuals.

Membership badge of a Kookaburra in sterling silver, issued by the Government to the widows of men who lost their lives due to their service. Numbered on the reverse.

Awarded to service personnel who sustained a wound, or contracted sickness of disability in the course of the war as a result of which they were invalided out, or to soldiers who had retired during the course of the war.

First issued in 1916. Slight variations are indicative of a number of makers. 267,300 were issued. Numbered on the reverse but the numbers have no link withlength of service or Service Number.

[Badge information collated from Australian War Memorial, "Australians Awarded" by Clive Johnson and en.wikipedia.com]