NX66800 Driver John [Enlisted as Jack]
Edward Shelley POW
Australian Army Service Corps
No 2 Company
27th Brigade, 8th Division
2nd Australian Imperial Force

This file last updated 21 October, 2023 10:21


Introduction



NX66800 Jack Edward Shelley
[ Photo taken on enlistment ]

John Edward Shelley is born in COOTAMUNDRA on 16 Feb 1916, the third of five children born to Frank Edward Shelley and Lydia née Chandler who married in 1910 in CANTURBURY. His siblings are Estelle M (born 1910 in BURWOOD), Millicent J (born 1913 in SUTHERLAND), younger brother Frank Lewis (born 1918 in BURWOOD) who also served in WW2 and Winifred L (born 1922 in YOUNG).

He enlists in the 2nd AIF on 13 Jul 1940 as Jack Edward Shelley but doesn't commence full-time duty until 7 Jan 1941.

It is most likely that as the Japanese Army threat became more pressing, the rush to enlist men outstripped the Australian ability to house, manage and train them, and there was a period of 'registration' followed by a later call-up to commence training. Other records over the same period show similar gaps between enlistment and training.

He gives his birth details as above and his occupation as labourer. His NOK is his father who now lives in ARNECLIFFE.

On enlistment he records 5 years service with the 7th Light Horse, which at that time was a Home Defence Force or Citizens Military Force unit. In 1942 it was converted and redesignated the 7th Australian Motor Regiment and disbanded in 1943.

The Service and Casualty Form B.103 used to record occurences gives his hair colour as black, eyes brown, an appendix scar and a scar across the bridge of his nose. His medical record would normally record this, as well as the condition of his teeth, height, weight and chest expansion.

Jack Edward Shelley

He is assigned to the 27th Brigade Australian Army Service Corps as a driver and disembarks in SINGAPORE on 23 Aug 1941 and gets involved in a fracas in the Malacca Club on 4 Nov 1941 which costs him a fine of £2/0/0.

The 27th Brigade is assigned to the west of the Malay Peninsular and together with several British and Indian units is involved in the Battle of GEMAA and the Battle of MUAR as the Allies were pushed down the peninsular. The AASC drivers were heavily involved and were crucial in a number of cases where their vehicles were used to reposition and withdraw troops from the front line.

After being driven back by the Japanese, the brigade was then heavily involved in the Defence of SINGAPORE. The Commonwealth troops surrendered on 15 Feb 1942. Jack Shelley is reported as missing on 16 Feb 1942 and confirmed as captured on 26 Aug 1943.

As for what happened while he was a POW, his currently available digitised record shows no detail other than his capture, presence in CHANGI, recovery in FUKUOKA in JAPAN and repatriation from MANILA to AUSTRALIA.

The actions of various units and the men of those units are, however, quite well documented, and we can extrapolate quite a deal. I have done as much of that as I can.

Anecdotally, the family was told that after capture he worked for the Japanese as a driver for a period, but somehow blotted his copybook and was sent back into the general pool of labourers.

Other evidence at mansell.com [© Roger Mansell] puts him in A Force (see sidebar below) on the THAI/BURMA Railroad, boarding the AWA MARU from River Valley Road Camp and sailing on Boxing Day 1944 to MOJI, where they disembarked on 15 Jan 1945 in mid-winter. 150 of the group (which did NOT include Jack) travelled to SENRYU, EMUKAE, where they received training by Japanese miners and were put to work in a SUMIMOTO-owned coal mine. See picture of the SUMIMOTO mine below.

As he appears on the Roster for Camp 17, he would have been assigned to the MIKAWA Coal Mine in OMUTA, KYUSHU which appears, in a picture further down the page, to be much less safely reinforced.

It is generally accepted that over 1/3rd of all Japanese prisoners: American; Australian; British; Burmese; Canadian; Chinese; Dutch; Filipino; Indian; Javanese; Korean; Malayan; New Zealander; Norwegian; South African; Thai and other civilians and military died in captivity, while many were murdered instead of being taken prisoner.

Further information concerning the FUKUOKA POW camp(s), as well as wider Japanese POW statistics can be found here.

The AWM advises over 22,000 Australians became prisoners of war in South East Asia.

On 13 Sep 1945 it is reported that he is a Prisoner of War released from imprisonment at FUKUOKA, JAPAN. The former POW were retained in Japan until their health and physique had improved, but there is no record of his travel from there to MANILA where he arrived on 26 Sep 1945.

On 4 Oct 1945 he embarks with more than 1,000 ex-PoWs from MANILA aboard British aircraft carrier HMS FORMIDABLE for SYDNEY, where he disembarks on 13 Oct 1945.

After processsing by the General Details Depot he is admitted to 101 Convalescent Depot on 14 Nov 1945. On the 8th of January 1946 he marches in to the General Duties Depot and is discharged on compassionate grounds on 9 Jan 1946.

Calculation of his service on discharge is as follows:

    WAR SERVICE IN AUSTRALIA . . . . . . . .   212 DAYS
    ACTIVE SERVICE OUTSIDE AUSTRALIA . . . .  1529 DAYS
    ACTIVE SERVICE IN AUSTRALIA  . . . . . . 88 79 DAYS
    COMPUTED TO AND INCLUDING (DATE) . . . .31 DEC 1945
    ADD From . 1 Jan 1946 to 9 Jan 1946  . .     9 DAYS
    TOTAL EFFECTIVE SERVICE  . . . . . . . .  1929 DAYS

The plaque placed on his grave by his family records that whilst a POW he was held at CHANGI PRISON in SINGAPORE, worked on the THAI/BURMA railway - with all that this entailed - and was then transported to JAPAN and held captive there. These facts have been verified.


Mikawa coal mine in Omuta, KYUSHU.
For further images of the POW camps and work sites see here

Display Jack Shelley's Service Record. [Does not include that part of the record which is closed,as noted in the chronological record] and while within the period where it can be released under the Archives Act 1983 it has not yet been examined.

See further information on the River Valley Road Camp, SINGAPORE from the 2/4th Machinegun Battalion site.

Display statement by Neil O. McPherson 2/2 Pioneer Battalion concerning survivors of A Force from the River Valley Road Camp as they sail to Japan on AWA MARU to FUKUOKA Camp 24 are put to work in the SUMIMOTO-owned coal mine and then the end of the war. 

Jack Shelley appears in the POW Rosters as being in OMUTA-FUKUOKA Camp 17 with number 7640 and this aligns with a typed entry on the Japanese POW Card which is "XVII 7640".  Display Prisoner of War Roster for Fukuoka Camp 17. The Roster gives US, British,Australian Dutch names in that sequence, with Jack Shelley as 17-7640 in the Australian Section about 3/4 of the way through what is quite a lengthy document.

Jack Shelley marries Ellen Emily Eccleston in 1947 at ROCKDALE and dies in YOUNG on 22 Feb 1956, six days short of his 40th birthday.

This record was compiled for Jack's nephew, Vietnam veteran 215882 Trevor Francis Shelley and his family by Clive Mitchell-Taylor October/November 2022.


Abbreviations and Acronyms

Abbreviations or acronyms which have a dotted underline can be expanded by moving the cursor over the term - e.g. WIA. The cursor will be replaced by ? and the expanded abbreviation will be displayed. This is gradually being incorporated into the site, replacing the the current expansion of abbreviations. There may be a discernable delay of about a second before the expansion is first provided.

There is also a separate list of abbreviations which is available through the menu at the top of this page or the hyperlink here.  Abbreviations are inconsistent, even within a single occurence where a term is abbreviated.

There are a number of sources for tracing abbreviations used in Australian and New Zealand service records. Those used when operating with the British or US forces can generally be found, especially in World War 1. Abbreviations used solely within Australia in WW2 are most difficult to trace, particularly when they are regional. Sometimes a 'best guess' is the only answer.

Duplicated Pages

Some of the service information may appear to be duplicated although individual occurrences are not in the same order and different abbreviations used. This occurs when the unit and Army records are amalgamated upon discharge or death in Service.

Service Numbers

Service numbers in WW1 were unique to the unit (e.g. Battalion) or Corps (e.g. Artillery). In WW2 Service Numbers were unique to the State in which they were allotted. For further information about identity numbers for Service personnel, see Regimental and Service Numbers

Dates of Occurrence and Reporting

The date of reporting an incident may be hours, days or months after the date on which incident actually occurred.

The original service record is amended only when the incident is reported which means that events are not necessarily recorded in in strict chronological sequence. This is the date shown on the left of the page of the original record, and also on the left in my transcription but readers should note that at times there may be no date of reporting at all, particularly when service personel are repatriated for discharge at the end of hostilities.

To assist the reader, when transcribing the military record I have done my best to record events in their chronological sequence. This is date is on the right of the page of the original record and also on the right in my transcription.

For clarity I have transcribed all dates into the format d MMM yyyy.


Enlistment Details
Attestation Form Dated 9 Mar 1942

AUSTRALIAN MILITARY FORCES.


ATTESTATION FORM.


To be filled in for all Persons at the Place of Assembly when called out under Part III. or IV. of the Defence Act, or when voluntarily enlisted.



Army Number...................NX66800..................

Surname.................................SHELLEY........................Other Names......................Jack Edward.................................................................

Unit...........................................................[in pencil]...................................[NO ENTRY]................................................................................

Enlisted for war service at............................ DRILL HALL ARNCLIFFE................................................................................................(Place)

.....................NSW........................................(State)....................................13 JUL 1940...........................................................................(Date)


A.     Questions to be put to persons called out or presenting themselves for voluntary enlistment*

1.     What is your name?

1.     Surname          SHELLEY
        Other Names   Jack Edward

2.     Where were you born?

2.     In or near the town of   Cootamundra   in the state or country of  NSW

3.     Are you a natural born or a naturalised British Subject? If the latter papers to be produced.

3.     Natural ["NB" added in a different hand]

4.     What is your age and date of birth

4.     Age                 24 year & 4 months 4/12
        Date of Birth    16 Feb 1916

5.     What is your trade or occupation

5.     Labourer

6.     Are you married, single or widower?

6.     Single

7.     Give details of previous military service —

7.     AMF    Militia, 5 years service
        No .........................Rank ........Trooper.......Unit ..7 Light Horse
        Other Military Service             NIL
        No .........................Rank .......NIL..........Unit ...................................

8.     If now serving, give particulars

                         
8.        No ..................... Rank .......NIL..........Unit ...................................

9.     Who is your actual next of kin? (Order of relationship.— wife, eldest son, eldest daughter, father, mother, eldest brother, eldest sister, eldest half-brother, eldest half-sister)

9.     Name              Frank Edward Shelley     
        Address           17 Glen Road, Arncliffe

        Relationship    FATHER

10.     What is your permanent address?

10.     17 Glen Road, Arncliffe

11.      What is your religious denomination?
(Answer optional)

11.      C of E



I, .....................Jack Edward Shelley .......................................................................................................do solemnly declare that the
above answers made by me to the above questions are true and I am willing to serve in the Australian Military forces within or beyond the limits of the Commonwwealth.

Witnessed by ......................Illegible....Capt................................ ...................J.E. Shelley...................................
                         (Signature of Attesting or Witnessing Officer)                                    (Signature)

* The person will be warned that should he give false answers to any of these questions he will be liable to heavy penalties under the Defence Act.


B

MEDICAL EXAMINATION

I have made full and careful examination of the abovenamed person in accordance with the instructions contained in the Standing Orders for Australian Army Medical Services. In my opinion he is — &loast;
1.    Fit for Class I.
2.    Temporarily unfit for Class 1 †   ...............Conf[irmed] Class I
3.    Unfit for military Service ...................................[illegible] 7 Jan 41.........................
Place   ...............Arncliffe ...................................Date .............................16 Jul 1940
Signature of Examining Medical Officer [illegible]

* Classifications which are inapplicable will be struck out.       † Reasons for unfitness to be stated

[Medical examination conducted 7 Jul 1940 confirmed by a different Medical Officer on 7 Jan 1941]


C

OATH OF ENLISTMENT ‡

     I,.....................Jack Edward Shelley ...............swear that I will well and truly serve our Sovereign Lord, the King, in the Military Forces of the Commonwealth of Australia until the cessation of the present time of war or until sooner lawfully discharged, dismissed, or removed, and that I will resist His Majesty's enemies and cause his Majesty's peace to be kept and maintained, and that I will in all matters appertaining to my service faithfully discharge my duty according to law.

SO HELP ME GOD!

Signature of Person Enlisted................. J.E. SHELLEY .......................

Subscribed at ............................... Paddington .............................. in the State of ........................... N. S. W. .....................................

this ............................ 7 th ...................................... day of .......................................January .................................. 1941

        Before me—

    Signature of Attesting Officer ................................ J.M. Burns Capt ....................................................................................................

‡ Persons who object to take an oath may make an affirmation in accordance with the Third Schedule of the Defence Act. In such cases the above form will be amended acccordingly and initialled by the Attesting Officer.


Chronological Events
(Service and Casualty Form)

Date
Reported

Received
From

Event/Casualty

Medical     Other     Disciplinary

Date of
Occurence

Place of
Occurence

13 Jul 1940

Recruiting Depot

Enlisted. Did not commence training until 8 Jan 1941.

13 Jul 1940

SYDNEY

8 Jan 1941

Gen Details Depot

Marched in to General Details Depot

7 Jan 1941

SYDNEY

9 Jan 1941

Gen Details Depot

Marched out to 20th I.T.B. Rutherford

8 Jan 1941

SYDNEY

11 Jan 1941

C/O 20 ITB

Taken on Strength ex GDD

8 Jan 1941

RUTHERFORD

21 Feb 1941

C/O 8 ITBn

Taken on Strength ex 20 ITBn

21 Feb 1941

DUBBO

31 Mar 1941

8 ITBn

Transferred to 8th Div Supply Column

38 Mar 1941

DUBBO

30 Mar 1941

O/C 8 Div Supply Col

Taken on Strength ex 8 Trg Bn

29 Mar 1941

BATHURST

31 Mar 1941

O/C 8 Div Supply Col

Report of an Injury :- Transverse laceration below R knee caused through fall on concrete culvert in Camp.

30 Mar 1941

DUBBO

24 Jul 1941

O/C 8 Div Supply Col

Transferred to 27 Bde Coy AASC

24 Jul 1941

BATHURST

24 Jul 1941

27 Bde Coy

Taken on Strength ex 8 Div Supply Column

24 Jul 1941

BATHURST

9 Aug 1941

D.R.O. E/C

Entrained for W/Comd

25 Jul 1941

BATHURST

9 Aug 1941

DRO W/C

Detrained at NORTHAM [WA]

25 Jul 1941

FREMANTLE

19 Aug 1941

D.R.O. W/C

Embarked "DD" [USS Dorothea L.Dix ruled out as not launched until 23 Oct 1942]

7 Aug 1941

FREEMANTLE

23 Aug

27 Bde Coy AASC

Disembarked SINGAPORE

15 Aug 1941

Abroad

8 Nov 1941

No 2 Coy

When on Active Service conduct to the pre[judice] of good order and military discipline in that at Malacca on 4 Nov 1941 he caused wilful damage to property of the members of the Malacca Club.
AA40 [This refers to those being charged being given the option to elect to have sentencing dealt with by their Commanding Officer rather than electing to be subject to a Court Martial.]
Award - fined £2/0/0 on 2 Nov 1941

4 Nov 1941

MALACCA

13 Apr 1942

AIF MALAYA

Missing [Missing in Action or MIA]

16 Feb 1942

MALAYA

7 Sep 1942

2 MD

N/K Change of Address now C/o P.O MONTEAGLE

1 Sep 1942

SYDNEY

4 Oct 1943

AIF MALAYA

Prisoner of War [POW]

16 Feb 1942

MALAYA

15 Aug 1945

GDD

Granted Proficiency Pay

15 Aug 1945

NSW

29 Sep 1945

Land Forces 4673

MANILA reports POW recovered. RO 19/2921 (N401) Maila [sic - probably Manila]

13 Sep 1945

Abroad

The scan of the outside of the envelope attached to this record states:



[Under the Archives Act 1983, as amended, this material has been wholly available since 1 January 2018]

21 Sep 1945

[Mother] Lydia Shelley

Submits Statutory Declaration concerning the loss of her Female Relatives badge.

Badge fastener faulty took in to Jewellers but no better was obliged to sew it on whenever I wore it & neglected to do so it has been lost notified police & numerous enquires.

[Before] 21 Sep 1945

Grenfell Rd, YOUNG

5 Oct 1945

NSW RR & GDD

Embarked MANILA per "FORMIDABLE"

5 Oct 1945

NSW

13 Oct 1945

NSW RR & GDD

Disembarked SYDNEY

13 Oct 1945

NSW

13 Oct 1945

NSW RR & GDD

Taken on Holding Strength

13 Oct 1945

NSW

14 Nov 1945

101 Conv Depot

Admitted ex GDD

14 Nov 1945

NSW

9 Jan 1946

GDD

Discharged AMR & O 253 (A)(1)(G) At Own Request on Compassionate Grounds

19 Jan 1946

NSW

27 Aug 1946

Jack Shelley

Submitted Statutory Declaration for replacement of his Discharge Certificate 292-623 lost at the Sydney Cricket ground on 19 May 196

27 Aug 1946

Grenfell Road, Young

13 Sep 1946

2MD

Postal card recording despatch of [presumably] duplicate Discharge Certificate
Overprint of date stamp 17 SEP 46

13 Sep 1946

Post Office Sydney

13 Sep

Post Office

Advice of Delivery Card

13 Sep 1946

8 Jan 1946

[Mother]Lydia Shelley

Submitted Statutory Declaration recording the loss of her Female Relative's Badge A.41985.

Pin and catch faulty & lost on wet muddy day & have tried Adv[isor] local paper reported to police &;amp; enquired for mths [months] enclosed is 1/- [One shilling (ten cents)]

8 Jan 1946

Grenfell Road, Young

6 Apr 1956

WAGGA WAGGA Legacy

Enquiry to Central Army Records Office as to whether NX66800 Driver Jack Edward Shelley, a deceased ex-serviceman served in any theatre of war which would classify him as a Returned Soldier within the meaning of the Act.

6 Apr 11956

W.W. ANSTICE, Chairman, Welfare Committee

13 Apr 1956

Central Army Records Office (CARO)

Reply to WAGGA WAGGA Legacy confirms that Jack Shelley was a prisoner-of-war and discharged on 9 Jan 1946/

12 Apr 1956

CARO


Medals and Dress Embellishments

1939-1945 Star, Pacific Star, War Medal 1939-1945, and Australia Service Medal 1939-1945.

Use the hyperlinks or scroll down to see further information.


27 Brigade, 8th Division - Outline Organisation




2nd/26th Infantry Battalion
Lt Col Arthur Boyes

2nd/29th Infantry Battalion
Lt Col Samuel Pond

2nd/30th Infantry Battalion
Lt Col Frederick Gallager &
Lt Col George Ramsay

Brigade Headquarters
Brigadier Duncan Maxwell

2nd/15th Artillery Regiment
Lt Col John Wright

16th Anti-Tank Regiment

2nd/12 Field Company Engineeers





2nd/10th Field Ambulance

27 Brigade Australian Army Service Corps

27 Brigade Ordnance Workshop

27 Brigade Ordnance


Red Cross Prisoner of War File


Japanese Prisoner of War Card



Medals and Dress Embellishments

1939-1945 Star, Pacific Star, War Medal 1939-1945, and Australia Service Medal 1939-1945.

Use the hyperlinks or scroll down to see further information.


Australian Army Service Corps 27th Brigade

UNIT COLOUR PATCH

AUSTRALIAN ARMY SERVICE CORPS
27th INFANTRY BRIGADE, 8th DIVISION

The role of the Service Corps is to provide transport and provision of supplies other than machinery or ammunition, but including mail and rations, as well as moving troops. The Service Corps worked in conjunction with Medical, Ordnance, Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, Military Police who provided services to 'Arms' units. These combat corps are Infantry, Cavalry/Armoured, Engineers and Signals (to which were added Aviation and Intelligence post-war).

In MALAYA and SINGAPORE during a fighting retreat this placed the members of the Corps in very close proximity with the Infantry and at times meant that where cut off from direct access to the units behind them, the vehicles, heavy machinery and supplies were burned and the drivers simply became more infantrymen.

The 8th Division was heavily involved in the fighting, and were later identified by the Japanese as providing the most determined defence they had met thus far. The following summary of the actions of the 27th Brigade are based on the Wikipedia entry for the Brigade as at 10 Oct 2022.

Given the conditions surrounding the withdrawal down the MALAY PENINSULA and the surrender of SINGAPORE it can be safely assumed that all members of the 27 Brigade, including the attached service units, were involved in action with the fighting units to which they were assigned.

As the Japanese advanced down Malaya the 27th Brigade were moved west where it joined British and Indian units to create a formation called "Westforce". The brigade fought several delaying actions including the Battle of GEMAS and the wider Battle of MUAR.

The 2/30th Battalion carried out an ambush at GEMAS while the 2/26th attempted to block the Japanese around the Fort Rose Estate.

The 2/29th Battalion was detached to assist the Indian 45th Brigade. This force became cut off after heavy fighting and the 2/19th Battalion was detached from 22 Brigade to assist. Under the command of Lt Col Charles Anderson the 2/19th fought their way through from BAKRI and linked up with the 2/29th. Together as "MUAR Force" they fought, still under his command, to regain contact with the Indians and then began a fighting withdrawal towards the bridge at PARIT SULONG.

They found that the bridge was held by the Japanese. Overcoming several attempts to capture the brigade they found themselves cut off, attacked from the air and from all sides. Destroying their vehicles and heavy equipment, they left their wounded to await treatment by the Japanese and then broke into small groups to move through the jungle to find the Allied lines further south.

Most of the wounded, instead of receiving medical treatment, were massacred by the Japanese at PARIT SULONG. The survivors reached Allied lines three days later.

As the Japanese advance continues, the 27th Brigade fought at SIMPANG RENGGANG, YONG PENG and AYER HITAM, in the process temporarily assuming command of several British units including the 2nd Battalion, Loyal Regiment and 2nd Battalion, Gordon Highlanders. By the end of January the Allied force had withdrawn to SINGAPORE.

Deployed to the Causeway area, the brigade fought off an assault on the night of 8/9 Feb 1942, defending off flanking movements. The 2/22nd was then sent south to bolster the 22nd Brigade.

The following night the Japanese made another landing in the brigade's area and heavy fighting took place in the Battle of KRANJI. Despite taking heavy casualties the Japanese established a beachhead and cut off the Brigade HQ.

As the perimeter shrank, the 8 Division troops were brought together around TANGLIN barracks where they remained until the garrison surrendered on 15 Feb 1942.


1939-1945 Star

1929-1945 Star

The 1939-45 Star is awarded for service between 3 September 1939 and 2 September 1945 for:

  • a period of six months (180 days) operational service for RAN and Army personnel and RAAF non-air crew personnel;
  • a period of two months operational service for air crew personnel; and/or
  • a period of six months service at sea for Merchant Navy provided at least one voyage was made through one of the specified areas of active operations;

The 1939-45 Star is awarded to Australian Civilian Personnel who served afloat with the United States Army Small Ships Section between 8 December 1941 and 2 September 1945. Eligibility is the same as that for Merchant Navy personnel. See required evidence to support a claim.

Design

The six–pointed star is yellow copper zinc alloy. The obverse has a central design of the Royal and Imperial cypher, surmounted by a crown. The cypher is surrounded by a circlet containing the words "The 1939-45 Star".

Stars issued to Australian personnel have recipient names engraved on the plain reverse.

Ribbon

The ribbon has three vertical stripes of dark blue, red and light blue. The dark blue stripe represents the Naval Forces and the Merchant Navy, the red stripe the Armies and the light blue stripe the Air Forces.

Clasps

The "BATTLE OF BRITAIN" clasp was awarded to eligible air crew involved in the Battle of Britain.

The "BOMBER COMMAND" clasp was introduced in 2012 and is awarded to eligible Bomber Command aircrew.

When the ribbon is worn alone the standard silver rosette ribbon emblem is worn to denote the award of a clasp. The silver rosette emblem is not supplied by the Directorate of Honours and Awards.


Pacific Star

The Pacific Star is awarded for entry into operational service in the Pacific Theatre of Operations between 8 December 1941 and 2 September 1945.

Navy and Merchant Navy personnel are eligible if the 1939-45 Star is earned by six months service or if they entered the Pacific Theatre between 2 March 1945 and 2 September 1945.

The Pacific Star is awarded to Australian Civilian Personnel who served afloat with the United States Army Small Ships Section. Eligibility is the same as that for Merchant Navy personnel. See required evidence to support a claim.

Design

The six–pointed star is yellow copper zinc alloy. The obverse has a central design of the Royal and Imperial cypher, surmounted by a crown. The cypher is surrounded by a circlet containing the words 'The Pacific Star'.

Stars issued to Australian personnel have recipient names engraved on the plain reverse.

Ribbon

The ribbon has central yellow and green stripes that represent the forests and the beaches of the Pacific, flanked dark blue, light blue and red stripes that represent the service of the Naval Forces and Merchant Navy, the Air Forces and the Armies.

Clasp

The Burma clasp was issued for the Pacific Star.

When the ribbon is worn alone a silver rosette ribbon emblem is worn to denote the award of a clasp.


War Medal 1939-1945

[Extract from Defence Honours and Awards website -Imperial Awards

The medal is cupro-nickel with the crowned effigy of King George VI on the obverse.

The reverse has a lion standing on a double-headed dragon. The top of the reverse shows the dates 1939 and 1945.

The rim is plain, and the medal hangs from a suspender. The ribbon colours of red, white and blue represent the colours of the Union Flag.

The War Medal 1939-45 was awarded for 28 days full-time service in the Armed Forces between 3 September 1939 and 2 September 1945. Operational and non-operational service may be counted, providing that it was of 28 days or more duration.

In the Merchant Navy there is a requirement that the 28 days should have been served at sea.

A member qualifies for the award where service was brought to an end by death, wounds or other disabilities due to service or by cessation of hostilities on 2 September 1945.

The War Medal 1939-45 is awarded to Australian Civilian Personnel who served afloat with the United States Army Small Ships Section between 8 December 1941 and 2 September 1945. Eligibility is the same as that for Merchant Navy personnel.


Australia Service Medal 1939-1945

Australia Service Medal 1939-1945

The Australia Service Medal 1939-1945 was instituted in 1949 to recognise the service of members of the Australian Armed Forces and the Australian Mercantile Marine during World War II.

The medal was originally awarded to those who served at home or overseas for at least 18 months full-time service, or three years part-time service, between 3 September 1939 and 2 September 1945. Members of the Australian Mercantile Marine must have served the qualifying time at sea.

In 1996 the qualifying time was reduced to 30 days full-time or 90 days part-time service. To be eligible for the medal a serviceman or woman must have been honourably discharged from the Australian Armed Forces.

Design

The medal is nickel silver with the crowned effigy of King George VI on the obverse. The reverse has the Australian coat of arms, placed centrally, surrounded by the words ‘THE AUSTRALIA SERVICE MEDAL 1939-1945’.

Ribbon

The ribbon has a wide khaki central stripe, flanked by two narrow red stripes, which are in turn flanked by two outer stripes, one of dark blue and the other of light blue. The khaki represents the Australian Army, and the red, dark blue and light blue represent the Merchant Navy, Royal Australian Navy and the Royal Australian Air Force respectively.

Attribution

The above information is from the Defence Honours site at http://www.defence.gov.au/Medals/Imperial/WWII/Australia-Service-Medal-1939-1945.asp, taken on 19 Jun 2019.


The Rising Sun Badge

This version of the Rising Sun Badge was worn by soldiers of the 1st and 2nd Australian Imperial Forces, and the badge has become an integral part of the Digger tradition.

Worn on the the upturned brim of the slouch hat, it is readily identified with the spirit of ANZAC.

There are a number of versions of the genesis of the badge, the most widely accepted being that it derived from a Trophy of Arms - various swords and bayonets mounted on  a semi-circular display in Victoria Barracks, Melbourne.

The original version worn in South Africa was modified in 1904 and worn by Australian soldiers through two World Wars.

Later changes were made to the style of the crown and the wording on the scroll. The "King's Crown" is the one shown to the left, while arches of the "Queen's Crown" rise at the same angle as the base of the crown, curve at their highest point to a level mid-way on the orb below the cross and then down to below the orb.

In 1949 the scroll was changed to read "Australian Military Forces".

In 1969 the badge was modified to incorporate the 7-pointed Federation Star with a central Queen's crown over the Torse Wreath (a twisted roll of fabric) from the original 1902 version, and the scroll wording changed to "Australia".

In the 75th anniversary year of the the ANZAC landings at Gallipoli, there was a drive to return to traditional accoutrements worn by Australian soldiers during the World Wars, which clearly identify the Australian Army. The Queen's crown returned to its central position and the scroll now reads "The Australian Army'.


Returned From Active Service Badge

The Australian Defence Force Returned From Active Service Badge features a tri-services badge (with an anchor, wings and Rising Sun) surmounted by the King's or Queen's crown of the reigning monarch, with a boomerang underneath with the text 'RETURNED FROM ACTIVE SERVICE' . The reverse of the badge has a pair of pin clips for attachment to the wearer's clothing.

The Returned from Active Service Badge (RASB) is issued to Australian Defence Force personnel who have rendered warlike service. The badge enables individuals to display their involvement in warlike service while wearing civilian attire. It is worn when the wearing of service medals is not appropriate or possible. As the award of the RASB is not governed by statute, it has been the practice of Australian Governments to determine conditions of eligibility for each conflict in accordance with the circumstances existing at the time.

Since 1945, with the award of the Australian Active Service Medal (AASM) 1945-75 and the current AASM, the badge has been awarded automatically. The bronze badge was introduced in 1953, and is identical to the earlier post-Second World War Returned from Active Service badge, apart from the replacement of the King's crown with the Queen's crown.

Anecdotally, the positioning of the lapel buttonhole has led  Australian returned service personnel to state that "nothing is positioned above the Returned from Active Service badge".   The RASB is not worn when medals are worn, as the medals themselves are ample proof of that status.  This also applies to the miniature devices of honours and awards.    


Some Government Issued Badges

Nearest Female
Relative Badge

War Widows
Guild Brooch

Silver War Badge
 

Discharged Returned
Soldier Badge

Government issued badge in enamel and sterling silver issued to the wife, mother or nearest female relative of a serving soldier. Additional bars were suspended below for further individuals.

Membership badge of a Kookaburra in sterling silver, issued by the Government to the widows of men who lost their lives due to their service. Numbered on the reverse.

Awarded to service personnel who sustained a wound, or contracted sickness of disability in the course of the war as a result of which they were invalided out, or to soldiers who had retired during the course of the war.

First issued in 1916. Slight variations are indicative of a number of makers. 267,300 were issued. Numbered on the reverse but the numbers have no link with length of service or Service Number.

[Badge information collated from Australian War Memorial, "Australians Awarded" by Clive Johnson and en.wikipedia.com]