3135 Gunner Amos Cooper Shepherd
2nd Brigade Ammunition Column
ANZAC Beach Party &
3rd Field Artillery Battery,
1st Field Artillery Brigade
1st Australian Imperial Force 1914-1919

This file last updated 2 September, 2023 2:53 AM


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The following information and chronological table are a summary of the entries from the service record of Amos Cooper Shepherd.

The service record held by the National Archive of Australia contained a letter which was the first indication that Amos had a brother Thomas James Shepherd who had enlisted before Amos, and was killed in action (KIA) on Gallipoli. Both served with the Artillery.

Prior to briefing the family on the service of Amos Shepherd and brother Thomas, I prepared this PDF summary which links the death of Thomas to unusual behaviour by Amos, who was undoubtedly looking to find his brother who had been wounded in the stomach whilst serving a gun in the Gallipoli hills and been transported back through the beach where Amost was serving.

Thomas was transferred to a hospital ship, died and was buried at sea. Amos was diagnosed with debility - which was undoubtedly what we now know to be Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and survivor guilt. He was returned to Australia and was deemed Totally and Permanently Incapacitated (TPI) and awarded a pension.

Prepared for Paul Shepherd, grandson of Amos Shepherd by Clive Mitchell-Taylor - 15 June 2018.

View Amos Shepherd's Service Record in PDF format, or AIF Project Certificate of Service or WW1 Embarkation Roll entry.

Abbreviations and Acronyms

Abbreviations or acronyms which have a dotted underline can be expanded by moving the cursor over the term - e.g. WIA. The cursor will be replaced by ? and the expanded abbreviation will be displayed. This is gradually being incorporated into the site, replacing the the current expansion of abbreviations. There may be a discernable delay of about a second before the expansion is first provided.

There is also a separate list of abbreviations which is available through the menu at the top of this page or the hyperlink here.  Abbreviations are inconsistent, even within a single occurence where a term is abbreviated.

There are a number of sources for tracing abbreviations used in Australian and New Zealand service records. Those used when operating with the British or US forces can generally be found, especially in World War 1. Abbreviations used solely within Australia in WW2 are most difficult to trace, particularly when they are regional. Sometimes a 'best guess' is the only answer.

Duplicated Pages

Some of the service information may appear to be duplicated although individual occurrences are not in the same order and different abbreviations used. This occurs when the unit and Army records are amalgamated upon discharge or death in Service.

Service Numbers

Service numbers in WW1 were unique to the unit (e.g. Battalion) or Corps (e.g. Artillery). In WW2 Service Numbers were unique to the State in which they were allotted. For further information about identity numbers for Service personnel, see Regimental and Service Numbers

Dates of Occurrence and Reporting

The date of reporting an incident may be hours, days or months after the date on which incident actually occurred.

The original service record is amended only when the incident is reported which means that events are not necessarily recorded in in strict chronological sequence. This is the date shown on the left of the page of the original record, and also on the left in my transcription but readers should note that at times there may be no date of reporting at all, particularly when service personel are repatriated for discharge at the end of hostilities.

To assist the reader, when transcribing the military record I have done my best to record events in their chronological sequence. This is date is on the right of the page of the original record and also on the right in my transcription.

For clarity I have transcribed all dates into the format d MMM yyyy.

Enlistment Details

Service Number



Amos Cooper Shepherd

Born at

Parish of Summer Corner, near Bathurst, County of New South Wales, Australia


24 years and 8 months as at 15 October 1914 [Actual date of birth not recorded but is in 1880]

Trade or Calling



Yes. 3 years with VJ Bennett, 224 Durham Street, Bathurst.

Marital Status


Next of Kin

Mother - Mrs June Shepherd, 224 Durham Street, Bathurst, NSW.

Previous Military Service

Yes. 10 months with Australian Militia then left district.

Discharged with Ignomony


Attested at

Sydney, NSW

Date of Enlistment

21 October 1915


5 foot 6 inches [167.7cm]


9 stone 12 pounds [138 pounds or 62.7Kg]


29 - 33 inches [73.6 - 83.8cm]





Religious Denomination

Church of England


1st Field Artillery Brigade Reinforcements, 1st Brigade

2nd Brigade Ammunition Column - ANZAC Beach Party

3rd Field Artillery Battery

Chronological Events






Enlisted, assigned to 1st Field Artillery Brigade as Driver

21 Oct 1914

May have dispensed with some elements of training due to previous enlistment.


Embarked from Newcastle on Transport ship "BARAMBAH" (A37)

21 Dec 1914

HMT "BARAMBAH" was one of the vessels captured at the commencement of the war from German shipping lines.


Joined Military Expeditionary Force (MEF), Egypt, as Driver

19 Feb 1915



Transferred to Gallipoli Peninsula, Divisional Ammunition Column.

30 Apr 1915

Brother, Thomas James Shepherd was transferred from the Divisional Ammunition Column to the 2nd Field Artillery Battery on 23 Feb 1915, and can be presumed to have landed on the Gallipoli peninsula with that unit on the 26th of April 1915. The 2nd Battery, less one section, was landed that night, but re-embarked, less one gun. The remaining guns were landed on the 26th.  Although there is no mention of the number of wounded in the 2nd Field Artillery Battery Commander's Diary, I suspect that Thomas was wounded on or about the 25th of May and it is known that he died of wounds on the 7th of June and was buried at sea on 9 Jun 1915. This may go some way to explaining the out of character behaviour which then followed.


Awarded 10 days detention for absence without leave and breaking camp.

2 Jun 1915

May have have worked his way to the hospital ship where his brother was.


Awarded 7 days Field Punishment No 2 for insubordinate language to his superior officer.

25 Jun 1916


Reverted to the rank of Gunner at his own request

13 Jul 1915

This 'reversion' is most likely descriptive of his early employment as a Driver, although his rank was never described as such. Both Driver and Gunner are the equivalent of Private, and record keeping would not be the most important task during the immediate phases of the landing.


Transferred to Peninsula Gallipoli

4 Jul 1915

See note above for 2 Jun 1915


Transferred to 3rd Field Artillery Battery

6 Sep 1915



Transferred to 2nd Brigade Ammunition Column, attached to permanent Beach Party

14 Sep 1916


Dysentery. Admitted to No 3 Field Dressing Station and transferred to Mudros (a small Greek port on the island of Lemnos, which was he staging platform and medical centre for Australian troops going to and from the Gallipoli peninsula

15 Sep 1915


Base Records report member in Convalescent Hospital and a further entry notes his next-of-kin were notified.

1 Oct 1915



Debility. Admitted to Ras-el-Tin convalescent Hospital, Alexandria, Egypt.

8 Oct 1915



Embarked on Hospital transport "BORDA" for 12 months Change in Australia

15 Nov 1915

His debility was later upgraded and he was deemed Totally and Permanently Incapacitated (TPI), because the next entries refer to pension details.


Discharge from the Service as medically unfit.

13 Jan 1916



Letter from Dept of Defence, Melbourne to Commandant, 2nd Military District (NSW) in reference to an enquiry which is not on his file. Advises that the proceedings of a Medical Board confirms Amos C Shepherd is an invalid and has been instructed to apply for a pension. It asks for his date of discharge.

14 Feb 1916


Pensions awarded

Full name of person for whom pension is claimed: Esther Shepherd, C/- Mr Ruhan, Cook Street, Lithgow, NSW
Relationship to member: Wife
Result of claim: Pension of 15/- per fortnight granted from 16 Aug 1917
Full name of person for whom pension is claimed: Master Thomas Henry Shepherd
Relationship to member: Child
Result of claim: Pension of 5/- per fortnight granted from 26 July 1917 and increased to 10/- from 16 Aug 1917
Name and address of Trustee: Esther Shepherd, address as above.





First link to brother Thomas James Shepherd
Letter from Officer In Charge, Base Records to Mrs T Shepherd, 224 Durham Street, Bathurst, NSW, in response to her enquiry regarding the effects of her son 589 Driver T.J. SHepherd who died of wounds received at the Dardanelles.

18 Apr 1916

This letter was the first clue to the fact that Amos Cooper Shepherd had a brother who DOW on Gallipoli.

AC Shepherd submits a letter and Statutory Declaration concerning the loss of his discharge certificate in Lithgow, NSW. His address is given as 41 Queen Street, Bexley, Sydney, NSW.

3 and 7 May 1936



AC Shepherd writes to apply for a duplicate discharge certificate, the original having been burnt in a fire. The letter is accompanied by a Statutory Declaration to the same effect. His address is given as 11 Pitt Street, Redfern, NSW.

2 Feb 1939


Medals and Dress Embellishments

1914-15 Star, British War Medal 1914-1920 and Victory Medal.

No Wound Stripes.

Entitled to wear the ANZAC 'A'.

One Long Service Stripes and two Overseas Service Chevrons.

Use the hyperlinks or scroll down to see further information on the badges.

Background - 1st Field Artillery Brigade
[Information from https://rslvirtualwarmemorial.org.au]


The 1st Field Artillery Brigade formed in Australia prior to embarkation in late 1914 to support the newly raised 1st Division with its composition as under:

  ◊   1st Field Artillery Battery
  ◊   2nd Field Artillery Battery
  ◊   3rd Field Artillery Battery
  ◊   101stField Artillery (Howitzer) Battery
  ◊   1st Brigade Ammunition Column

It went on to serve in ANZAC: Defence of ANZAC, Egypt: Defence of Egypt, Western Front: Pozieres, Retreat to the Hindenburg Line, Bullecourt, Messines, Menin Road, Polygon Wood, Passchendaele, Ancre, Villers Bretonneux, Hamel, Amiens, Albert, Hindenburg Line.

Napoleon Bonaparte famously described Artillery as "the God of War" because of the effect that its fire can bring to bear on the battlefield. In WW 1 on the Western Front, artillery dominated and defined the battlefield. In concert with the weather, it turned the terrain into the pulverised devastated quagmire that is so synonomous with that period and place.

Artillery inflicted the most casualties and battle space damage and instilled the most fear among opposing forces. Its effect was both physical and psychological, with the term 'shell shock' coming into general use early in the war. Artillery required a Herculean logistic effort to keep ammunition up to the guns from manufacture to the gun line. It was also a very dangerous occupation, attracting the attention of the enemy, the general result of which was 'counter battery fire' designed to neutralise and destroy gun positions and ammunition.

At the outbreak of the War, Australian Artillery was in short supply in both quantitative and qualitative terms. The standard 'fire unit' of artillery is a Battery comprising variously four to six guns described as light medium or heavy depending on the equipment, calibre and weight of shell.

The standard field gun was the British 18 pounder (so-called because of the weight of the high explosive shell). When the AIF embarked, its artillery was light-on indeed. As it turned out the scope to use it at Gallipoli was extremely constrained anyway so it mattered less than had the AIF gone straight to Europe, where artillery was the definitive feature of the battlefield.

At ANZAC, guns were deployed singly purely becasue of a lack of suitable fire positions. The 18 pounders were the first into action but later an improvised heavy Battery was formed with two 6 inch (150mm) howitzers and a 4.7 inch (120mm) Naval Quick Firing gun.

Artillery units had arguably the least intuitive structure and organisation of any of the major Corps in the AIF. This in part reflected changing priority and availability of equipment. As the war progressed, concentration to facilitate command and control at the highest level, became a defining characteristic of the structure of artillery units (generally and somewhat confusingly called Field Artillery Brigades, - rather than the contemporary term 'regiments' - which were aggregations of like Batteries).

Specialised sub units (Batteries equipped with specialised weapons like Siege Artillery, Heavy Howitzers and Medium and Heavy Mortars) were raised and allocated across the AIF generally at Division and Corps level. The allocation of their fire support.was similarly controlled.

The standard organisation of Field Artillery took on the form of the Field Artillery Brigade which were formed to support infantry divisions. In 1914 and 1915 the First and Second Division each had three brigades (initially corresponding to the Brigade numeric designation) equipped with 12 x 18 pounder field guns. On arrival in France, the artillery was reorganised with each field artillery brigade having 12 x 18 pounders and 4 x 4.5 inch howitzers. There was initially a lack of howitzers available to meet the establishment.

Each Brigade generally comprised three Batteries of four 18 Pounder Mk 1 or II guns. With a range of about 6,500 yards (almost 6km) they fired a range of ammunition natures including High Explosive fragmentation, Shrapnel, Smoke, Gas, Star (illumination) and Armour Piercing projectiles.

In March 1916 a fourth battery of four 18 pounder field guns was added. At the same time a Howitzer Brigade was raised for each division with 12 x 4.5 inch howitzers each.

In January 1917, batteries were increased in size to 6 guns each in order to economise on headquarters structures and the number of Field Artillery Brigades in each division was reduced to two.



The brass letter 'A' to represent service related to Gallipoli (ANZAC) was authorised to be worn 'over unit colour patches on both sleeves of the service dress jacket and greatcoat" by Military Order 354 of 18 Aug 17 and AIF Order 937 of 6 Nov 17, as amended in terms of qualification by Military Order 20 of 19 Jan 18 and by AIF Order 1084 of 25 Jan 18.

The size of the letter 'A', introduced as one inch in height (AIF Order 994 of 30 Nov 17), was reduced to three-quarters of an inch by AIF Order 1012 of 11 Dec 17. Provision for wearing the brass letter 'A' was also included in General Routine Order 0.815 of 17 Dec 43 and GRO 310 of 7 Dec 45.

1914-15 Star

[Extract from Ribbons and Medals: Naval, Military, Air Force and Civil, Captain H. Taprell Dorling, DSO RN,
George Philip & Son, 33 Fleet Street, London EC4, 1940]
1914-15 Star

The decoration consists of a four-pointed star in bright bronze as shown, with the date 1914-15 on the central scroll. The reverse is plain, and is stamped with the name and unit of the recipient. The ribbon is red, white and blue, shaded and watered, worn with the red nearest the centre of the breast. It is atached to the medal through a ring.

It is similar in shape and description to the 1914 Star, to which few, if any, Australians were entitled. Those entitled were those who had already served with the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force (AN&MEF) in the operations to capture German New Guinea in 1914.

The decoration, sanctioned in 1918, was issued "to all officers, warrant officers, non-commissioned officers and men of the British, Dominion, Colonial and Indian Forces, including civilian medical practitioners, nursing sisters, nurses and others eployed with military hospitals, who actually served on the establishment of a unit in a theatre of war as defined in Appendix 'A'. Individuals in possession of the 1914 Star will not be eligible for the award of this decoration."

Appendix 'A' included the Western, Eastern, Egyptian, African, Asiatic and Australasian Theatres of war, with commencement dates individual to countries and campaigns.

British War Medal 1914-20

[Extract from Ribbons and Medals: Naval, Military, Air Force and Civil, Captain H. Taprell Dorling, DSO RN,
George Philip & Son, 33 Fleet Street, London EC4, 1940]
British War Medal

This medal was approved by King George V in 1919 to record the bringing of the war to a successful conclusion and the arduous services rendered by His Majesty's Forces.

The medal, which is supended from its ribbon by means of a straight clasp, without swivel, bears on the obverse the effigy of His Majesty - exactly similar to that on a half-crown - with the legend 'Georgivus V : Omn : Rex et Ind : Imp'.

The reverse bears a design which represents St George on horseback, trampling underfoot the eagle shield of the central powers and a skull and crossbones, the emblems of death. Overhead is the risen sun of victory. The male figure, rather than a symbolical female one, was chosen because man had borne the brunt of the fighting. The figure was mounted on horseback as symbolical of man's mind controlling force (represented by the horse) of far greater strength than his own. The design is thus also symbolical of the mechanical and scientific appliances which helped so largely to win the war.

The ribbon has a orange watered centre with stripes of white and black at each side and with borders of royal blue. It is stated that the colours have no particular signification.

Victory Medal

[Extract from Ribbons and Medals: Naval, Military, Air Force and Civil, Captain H. Taprell Dorling, DSO RN,
George Philip & Son, 33 Fleet Street, London EC4, 1940]

This medal, of bronze, bears on the obverse a winged figure of Victory, full length in the middle of the medal and full face; the borders and the backgound plain, without either incription or date. On the reverse is an inscription. "The Great War for Civilization." and either the names of the different Allied and Associated Powers, or their coats of arms.

The rim is plain, and the medal hangs from a ring. The ribbon is red in the centre, with green and violet on either side shaded to form the colours of two rainbows.

It has also been approved that any officer or man who has been "mentioned in despatches" shall wear a small bronze oak leaf on the ribbon of this medal. Only one oak leaf is so worn, no matter how many "mentions" the wearer may have received.

The medal is designed to obviate the exchange of Allied Commemorative war medals, and is issued only to those who actually served on the establishment of a unit or ship in a theatre of war. [This is an important distinction, as those Australians who served only in Australia, or only in Australia and England, were not entitled to the award.]

The Rising Sun Badge

This version of the Rising Sun Badge was worn by soldiers of the 1st and 2nd Australian Imperial Forces, and the badge has become an integral part of the Digger tradition.

Worn on the the upturned brim of the slouch hat, it is readily identified with the spirit of ANZAC.

There are a number of versions of the genesis of the badge, the most widely accepted being that it derived from a Trophy of Arms - various swords and bayonets mounted on  a semi-circular display in Victoria Barracks, Melbourne.

The original version worn in South Africa was modified in 1904 and worn by Australian soldiers through two World Wars.

Later changes were made to the style of the crown and the wording on the scroll. The "King's Crown" is the one shown to the left, while arches of the "Queen's Crown" rise at the same angle as the base of the crown, curve at their highest point to a level mid-way on the orb below the cross and then down to below the orb.

In 1949 the scroll was changed to read "Australian Military Forces".

In 1969 the badge was modified to incorporate the 7-pointed Federation Star with a central Queen's crown over the Torse Wreath (a twisted roll of fabric) from the original 1902 version, and the scroll wording changed to "Australia".

In the 75th anniversary year of the the ANZAC landings at Gallipoli, there was a drive to return to traditional accoutrements worn by Australian soldiers during the World Wars, which clearly identify the Australian Army. The Queen's crown returned to its central position and the scroll now reads "The Australian Army'.

Wound Stripe

Army Order No.204 Headquarters, 1st A.N.Z.A.C., 9th August, 1916. (slightly amended for layout)

Wound Stripes

The following distinction in dress will be worn on the service dress jacket by all officers and soldiers who have been wounded in any of the campaigns since 4th August 1914 :

    Stripes of gold Russia braid No.1, two inches [2.5cm] in length sewn perpendicularly on the left forearm sleeve of the jacket to mark each occasion on which wounded.

    In the case of officers, the lower end of the first strip of gold braid will be immediately above the upper point of the flap on the cuff.

    Warrant officers, non-commissioned officers and men will wear the gold braid on the left forearm sleeve, the lower edge of the braid to be three inches from the bottom of the sleeve.

    Subsequent occasions on which wounded, will be placed on either side of the original one at half inch interval.

    Gold braid and sews will be obtained free on indent from the Army Ordnance Department; the sewing on will be carried out regimentally without expense to the public.

Long Service Badges

[Image from http://www.diggerhistory.info]
Long Service Badges
A.I.F. ORDER No.470, 24 January 1917 (slightly amended for layout)

The question of the issue of a badge to members of the AIF who have completed a certain period of service has received consideration, and approval has been given for the issue of a badge for long service combined with good conduct, subject to the following conditions.

    The badge will consist of an inverted single chevron of service braid to be worn on the left forearm - the point of the chevron to be 3 inches [7.6cm] above the edge of the cuff.

    Warrant and non-commissioned officers and men, will be eligible for the badge, which will not carry an increased pay or allowance.

    One chevron will be worn for each complete year's service in the Australian Imperial Force from the date of embarkation in Australia.

    No badge will be issued to any man who, during the 12 months, has incurred a regimental entry (i.e. an entry involving forfeiture of pay) in his sheet.

    Time absent from the unit in hospital or elsewhere on account of wounds or sickness, not the result of misconduct, will count as service towards earning the badge.

    A man in possession of a badge will forfeit same on being convicted of any offence involving a forfeiture of pay , but will be eligible to regain the badge after 6 months good conduct, from the date of forfeiture.

    The illegal wearing of this badge will be a crime under A.A. Section 40.

Overseas Service Chevrons

[Image from http://www.diggerhistory.info]

Overseas Service Chevrons

Australian Imperial Force Order No.1053, January 1918 (Slightly amended for layout)

His Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of chevrons to denote service overseas since the 4th August 1914.

    Chevrons of two colours have been approved.

      The first chevron if earned on or before 31st December 1914, will be red.

      If earned on or after 1st January 1915, it will be blue.

      All additional chevrons after the first will be blue.

    The chevrons will be worsted embroidery, 1/4 inch [0.63cm] in width, the arms 4 inches [10.2cm] long. They will be worn inverted on the right forearm:

    In the case of officers, the apex of the lowest chevron will be 1 inch [2.5cm] above the upper point of the flap on the cuff.

    In the case of warrant-officers, non-commissioned officers and men, the apex of the lowest chevron will be midway between the seams and four inches [10.2cm] above the bottom edge of the sleeve.

    The red chevron will be worn below the blue one. They will not be worn on greatcoats.

    In the case of Australians, the first chevron was earned the date the individual left Australia. Additional chevrons were awarded for each successive aggregate period of 12 months service outside Australia.

Some Government Issued Badges

Nearest Female
Relative Badge

War Widows
Guild Brooch

Silver War Badge

Discharged Returned
Soldier Badge

Government issued badge in enamel and sterling silver issued to the wife, mother or nearest female relative of a serving soldier. Additional bars were suspended below for further individuals.

Membership badge of a Kookaburra in sterling silver, issued by the Government to the widows of men who lost their lives due to their service. Numbered on the reverse.

Awarded to service personnel who sustained a wound, or contracted sickness of disability in the course of the war as a result of which they were invalided out, or to soldiers who had retired during the course of the war.

First issued in 1916. Slight variations are indicative of a number of makers. 267,300 were issued. Numbered on the reverse but the numbers have no link withlength of service or Service Number.

[Badge information collated from Australian War Memorial, "Australians Awarded" by Clive Johnson and en.wikipedia.com]